Spatial variations in surface water methane super-saturation and emission in Lake Lugano, southern Switzerland
We measured methane concentrations in the surface water of the northern basin of Lake Lugano in spring (May 2012) and autumn (October 2011, 2012), and calculated turbulent diffusive methane fluxes to the atmosphere. Surface water methane concentrations were highly variable in space and time but always exceeded atmospheric equilibrium. Methane concentrations were significantly lower in spring (on average 16 nmol L−1) than during the autumn sampling campaigns (on average 57 nmol L−1 in 2011 and 45 nmol L−1 in 2012). This suggests methane accumulation in the surface mixed layer during the summer productive season. The origin of the methane in the lake’s surface waters requires further assessment, but the observed concentration profiles indicate that the excess methane originates from a near-surface source, rather than from the large deep-water methane pool in the anoxic monimolimnion. As a consequence of the higher surface water methane concentrations and increased buoyancy turbulence caused by autumnal cooling of the surface boundary layer, diffusive fluxes were much higher in October (average ~97 μmol m−2 day−1, compared to 7 μmol m−2 day−1 in May 2012). The increase in methane concentration in the surface water between spring and autumn suggests links between methane accumulation and the annual biological cycle, yet seasonal changes in wind and temperature forcing of methane emission likely play an important modulating role. While the relative importance of biological versus physical controls on methane emission in Lake Lugano awaits further investigations, our study underscores that lakes can act as an important source of methane to the atmosphere, even when the lake-internal microbial methane filter in the water column seems to work efficiently.
Century-Long warming trends in the upper water column of Lake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika, the deepest and most voluminous lake in Africa, has warmed over the last century in response to climate change. Separate analyses of surface warming rates estimated from in situ instruments, satellites, and a paleolimnological temperature proxy (TEX86) disagree, leaving uncertainty about the thermal sensitivity of Lake Tanganyika to climate change. Here, we use a comprehensive database of in situ temperature data from the top 100 meters of the water column that span the lake’s seasonal range and lateral extent to demonstrate that long-term temperature trends in Lake Tanganyika depend strongly on depth, season, and latitude. The observed spatiotemporal variation in surface warming rates accounts for small differences between warming rate estimates from in situ instruments and satellite data. However, after accounting for spatiotemporal variation in temperature and warming rates, the TEX86 paleolimnological proxy yields lower surface temperatures (1.46 °C lower on average) and faster warming rates (by a factor of three) than in situ measurements. Based on the ecology of Thaumarchaeota (the microbes whose biomolecules are involved with generating the TEX86 proxy), we offer a reinterpretation of the TEX86 data from Lake Tanganyika as the temperature of the low-oxygen zone, rather than of the lake surface temperature as has been suggested previously. Our analyses provide a thorough accounting of spatiotemporal variation in warming rates, offering strong evidence that thermal and ecological shifts observed in this massive tropical lake over the last century are robust and in step with global climate change.
Der faszinierende Kivusee und das gelöste Methan in seinem Tiefenwasser könnten eine ganze Forschungsanstalt auf Trab halten. Mit unseren Forschungsprojekten versuchen wir, Grundlagen für eine nachhaltige und sichere Nutzung des Methans zu schaffen.
Abwasser ist mit antibiotikaresistenten Bakterien belastet.
Wir untersuchen ihre Ausbreitung in die Umwelt und Gegenmassnahmen.
Anwendung eines feldtauglichen Kapillarelektrophorese-Geräts zur Analyse von Anionen und Kationen in kleinsten Probemengen