Department Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development

Management of Excreta, Wastewater and Sludge

2.7 billion people worldwide currently rely on onsite sanitation technologies. The development of innovative solutions for collection, transport, treatment, and resource recovery of the resulting faecal sludge (FS) is essential to fulfill the sanitation needs of urban areas in low- and middle-income countries.

Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) is a relatively new and rapidly growing field. In addition to innovation, there is a great need for practical and reliable approaches that allow engineers to select and design treatment technologies. Sandec’s research addresses these gaps in sound engineering design approaches for FSM. Our publications are all available <<here>>.


Dr. Linda StrandeTel. +41 58 765 5553Send Mail



The SEEK project aims to increase revenue potential by processing sludge together with other urban waste streams into fuel pellets and electricity through gasification.


Sustainable urban water and wastewater management applied and implemented in the modular NEST building.


Sandec is working in collaboration with the Hanoi University of Civil Engineering to evaluate the feasibility of treating faecal sludge through anaerobic digestion


Working towards improved faecal sludge dewatering and resource recovery through pilot-scale research on locally available conditioners and carbonization

Global - SFDs

The Shit-Flow-Diagram (SFD) is a figure designed to present complex information in easy to understand fashion, to convey the current state of sanitation on a city-wide scale.


Dr. Linda StrandeTel. +41 58 765 5553Send Mail
Barbara Jeanne WardTel. +41 58 765 5290Send Mail
Dr. Mi NguyenPostdoctoral ResearcherTel. +41 58 765 6468Send Mail
Nienke Marije AndriessenProject OfficerTel. +41 58 765 5082Send Mail