Investigating the interactions between migration ecology, local adaptation and diversification
Assessing biodiversity from genes to communities in Swiss river fish
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Fischbesatz in Seen - funktioniert das?
Felchen und Seesaiblinge sind wichtige Fische für die Berufs- und Angelfischerei. Ihre natürliche Fortpflanzung war im letzten Jahrhundert durch hohe Nährstoffeinträge aus Landwirtschaft und Siedlungsabwässer in unsere Seen jedoch stark beeinträchtigt. Mit Besatz versuchte man die Fischbestände zu stützen. Heute ist die Wasserqualität wieder deutlich besser – braucht es den Besatz nun immer noch oder funktioniert die Naturverlaichung wieder?
Schmid, C.; Lundsgaard-Hansen, B. (2016) Fischbesatz in Seen - funktioniert das?, Petri-Heil, 50-52, Institutional Repository
Seit Jahrzehnten werden viele Schweizer Fliessgewässer mit Fischen besetzt, trotzdem sind die Fangzahlen vielerorts rückläufig. Ob Fischbesatz wirklich notwendig ist und ob dieser funktioniert, kann auf verschiedene Arten überprüft werden. Hier, im dritten Teil der Serie "Erfolgskontrollen Fischbesatz", beleuchten wir die gängigsten Kontrollmethoden und stellen einige Untersuchungen vor, die an Schweizer Fliessgewässern durchgeführt wurden.
Is hatchery stocking a help or harm? Evidence, limitations and future directions in ecological and genetic surveys
Hatchery fish stocking for stock enhancement has been operated at a massive and global scale. However, the use of hatchery fish as a means of stock enhancement is highly controversial, and little is known about its effects on wild stock and consequences for stock enhancement. Here we review the scientific literature on this subject in order to address a fundamental question — is hatchery stocking a help or harm for wild stock and stock enhancement? We summarized 266 peer-reviewed papers that were published in the last 50 years, which describe empirical case studies on ecology and genetics of hatchery stocks and their effects on stock enhancement. Specifically, we asked whether hatchery stock and wild stock differed in fitness and the level of genetic variation, and whether stocking affected population abundance. Seventy studies contained comparisons between hatchery and wild stocks, out of which 23 studies showed significantly negative effects of hatchery rearing on the fitness of stocked fish, and 28 studies showed reduced genetic variation in hatchery populations. None of these studies suggested a positive genetic effect on the fitness of hatchery-reared individuals after release. These results suggest that negative effects of hatchery rearing are not just a concern but undeniably present in many aquaculture species. In a few cases, however, no obvious effect of hatchery rearing was observed, and a positive contribution of hatchery stock to the abundance of fish populations was indicated. These examples suggest that there is a chance to improve hatchery practices and mitigate the negative effects on wild stocks, although scientific data supporting the positive effect on stock enhancement are largely missing at this moment. Technically, microsatellite-based parentage assignments have been proven as a useful tool for the evaluation of reproductive fitness in natural settings, which is a key for stock enhancement by hatchery-based stocking. We discuss implications of these results, as well as their limitations and future directions.
Studies from a wide diversity of taxa have shown a negative relationship between genetic compatibility and the divergence time of hybridizing genomes. Theory predicts the main breakdown of fitness to happen after the F1 hybrid generation, when heterosis subsides and recessive allelic (Dobzhansky-Muller) incompatibilities are increasingly unmasked. We measured the fitness of F2 hybrids of African haplochromine cichlid fish bred from species pairs spanning several thousand to several million years divergence time. F2 hybrids consistently showed the lowest viability compared to F1 hybrids and non-hybrid crosses (crosses within the grandparental species), in agreement with hybrid breakdown. Especially the short- and long-term survival (2 weeks to 6 months) of F2 hybrids was significantly reduced. Overall, F2 hybrids showed a fitness reduction of 21% compared to F1 hybrids, and a reduction of 43% compared to the grandparental, non-hybrid crosses. We further observed a decrease of F2 hybrid viability with the genetic distance between grandparental lineages, suggesting an important role for negative epistatic interactions in cichlid fish postzygotic isolation. The estimated time window for successful production of F2 hybrids resulting from our data is consistent with the estimated divergence time between the multiple ancestral lineages that presumably hybridized in three major adaptive radiations of African cichlids.
Phenotypic novelty in experimental hybrids is predicted by the genetic distance between species of cichlid fish
Background: Transgressive segregation describes the occurrence of novel phenotypes in hybrids with extreme trait values not observed in either parental species. A previously experimentally untested prediction is that the amount of transgression increases with the genetic distance between hybridizing species. This follows from QTL studies suggesting that transgression is most commonly due to complementary gene action or epistasis, which become more frequent at larger genetic distances. This is because the number of QTLs fixed for alleles with opposing signs in different species should increase with time since speciation provided that speciation is not driven by disruptive selection. We measured the amount of transgression occurring in hybrids of cichlid fish bred from species pairs with gradually increasing genetic distances and varying phenotypic similarity. Transgression in multi-trait shape phenotypes was quantified using landmark-based geometric morphometric methods. Results: We found that genetic distance explained 52% and 78% of the variation in transgression frequency in F1 and F2 hybrids, respectively. Confirming theoretical predictions, transgression when measured in F2 hybrids, increased linearly with genetic distance between hybridizing species. Phenotypic similarity of species on the other hand was not related to the amount of transgression. Conclusion: The commonness and ease with which novel phenotypes are produced in cichlid hybrids between unrelated species has important implications for the interaction of hybridization with adaptation and speciation. Hybridization may generate new genotypes with adaptive potential that did not reside as standing genetic variation in either parental population, potentially enhancing a population's responsiveness to selection. Our results make it conceivable that hybridization contributed to the rapid rates of phenotypic evolution in the large and rapid adaptive radiations of haplochromine cichlids.
Stelkens, R. B.; Schmid, C.; Selz, O.; Seehausen, O. (2009) Phenotypic novelty in experimental hybrids is predicted by the genetic distance between species of cichlid fish, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 283 (13 pp.), doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-283, Institutional Repository