Department Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development

Towards Citywide Inclusive Sanitation


Citywide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) is an approach to urban sanitation, where all members of the city have equitable access to adequate and affordable improved sanitation services through appropriate systems of all scales (sewered & non-sewered), without any contamination to the environment along the entire sanitation value chain. Please find further information about CWIS in the open access special issue on Citywide Inclusive Sanitation from Frontiers in Environmental Science or in the article Solving urban sanitation – sustainably and equitably.

The video series “Towards Citywide Inclusive Sanitation” provides insights on how African and Asian cities are moving towards citywide inclusive sanitation. Sanitation experts give personal insights into their work, provide background information about the current sanitation situation in their cities, share their visions and highlight inspiring initiatives.

Kampala, Uganda

More about Kampala’s way towards CWIS

Lusaka, Zambia

Kathmandu, Nepal

Dhaka, Bangladesh

More about Dhaka’s way towards CWIS


SFD Report - Dhaka, Bangladesh - SFD Promotion Initiative, Furlong, C., 2016.

SFD Report - Sakhipur, Bangladesh - SFD Promotion Initiative, Al-Muyeed, A., Nath, S. K., Basar, Md. S., 2018.

Tackling the Second-Generation Sanitation Challenge at Scale: Business Solutions for Inclusive Faecal Sludge Management in Bangladesh, Noémie de La Brosse, Rosie Renouf, Suman Kanti Nath.  in: FSM Innovation Case Studies, 2017. [pdf, 4.3 MB]


ITN-BUET, International Training Network Centre

DWASA, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA)

DNCC, Dhaka North City Corporation (website in Bangla & English)

WaterAid Bangladesh

DSK, Dushthya Shashthya Kendra

SNV Bangladesh

Abidjan, Ivory Coast

More about Abidjan's way towards CWIS


Barriers to access improved water and sanitation in poor peri-urban settlements of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, Angoua ELE, Dongo K, Templeton MR,Zinsstag J, Bonfoh B, 2018. [pdf, 1.1MB]

SFD- Abidjan (in progress) 


ONAD, Office National de l'Assainissement et du Drainage: ONAD

UNA, Université Nangui Abrogoua

AAE/AfWA, Association Africaine de l'Eau

CSRS, Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire


Sandec’s initiatives related to CWIS

  • The ConCaD initiative is building capacity in private sector consulting firms and with individual consultants to conceptualize, plan, design and supervise the implementation of city-wide inclusive urban sanitation services.
  • In the CWIS-project, our PhD candidate Abishek Narayan is developing a methodology for urban sanitation planning relevant for cities in low- and middle income countries. The project takes place in India. 
  • Please visit the website of the group MEWS: Management of Excreta, Wastewater, and Sludge to learn more about their research and publications (e.g., Faecal Sludge Management book).