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Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries
Excreta and Wastewater Management

Excreta and Wastewater Management

The publications of the Excreta and Wastewater Management group are organized into three groups:

Journals and Conference papers

Characterization of faecal sludge during dry and rainy seasons in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Refereed paper presented at 36th WEDC International Conference, Nakuru, Kenya, 2013
M. Bassan, T. Tchonda, L. Yiougo, H. Zoellig, I. Mahamane, M. Mbéguéré, L. Strande (2013)
Integrated faecal sludge management scheme for the cities of Burkina Faso

Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, Vol 3, No 2, pp 216-221
M. Bassan, M. Mbéguéré, F. Zabsonré (2013)

Optimizing the faecal sludge management scheme in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Paper published in the Sustainable Sanitation Practice Magazine, EcoSan Club,
(Page 22 of the journal pdf)
M. Bassan, T. Tchonda, M. Mbéguéré, L. Strande (2012).

Processus d’élaboration d’un cadre institutionnel régulant l’activité de vidange mécanique de la ville de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Paper presented at 16th International Congress of the African Water Association, Marrakech, Morocco, 2012
M. Bassan, T. Tchonda, M. Mbéguéré, F. Zabsonré (2012)

Managing Your Everyday Shit

Strande, L. (2012)

Keywords: Faecal sludge management, research, calorific value, marked demand, resource

Market Demand for End-Products of Faecal Sludge Treatment in Kampala, Accra, and Dakar

Semiyaga, S., Diener, S., Niwagaba, C.B., Gning, J.B., Ennin, J.E., Strande, L. (2012)

Keywords: Market demand, alternative fuel, feed source, fertilizer, biogas

From Waste to Resource – Research on FS  Drying Beds in Dakar, Senegal (DAR – De Dechets à Resources)

Niang, S., Gueye, A., Seck, A., Dione, H., Sonko, M., Gnign, J.B., Mbéguéré, M.,
Strande, L. (2012)

Keywords: Faecal sludge, drying beds, plant, resource, greenhouse

Business Model Innovations for Scaling-up FSM Businesses in Low- and Middle-income Countries

Schöbitz, L., Gebauer, H., Robbins, D., Otoo, M., Drechsel, P., Srikantaiah, V.,
Strande, L. (2012)

Keywords: FS Management, scaling up, business model innovations, organic growth, replication of micro-business

Sanitation Safety Plans for Safe Management and Valorization of Faecal Sludge Cissé, G., Medlicott, K., Stenström, T.A., Winkler, M., Strande, L., Drechsel, P. (2012)

Keywords: Safety plan, public health, environmental concerns, resource recovery and reuse

Fuel Potential of Faecal Sludge – Calorific Value Results from Uganda, Ghana, and Senegal

Nakato, T., Strande, L., Niwagaba, C., Dione, H., Baawuah, N., Murray, A. (2012)

Keywords: Fuel potential, calorific value, comparison, age, dryness

Financial Viability of Faecal Sludge Collection and Transport in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Bassan, M., Tchonda, T., Gambazzi, F., Strande, L. (2012)

Keywords: FS management, institutional framework, workshops, C&T

Capital and Operating Costs of Full-Scale Fecal Sludge Management and Wastewater Treatment Systems in Dakar, Senegal
P.H. Dodane, M. Mbéguéré, O. Sow, L. Strande (2012)

Keywords: Faecal sludge management, Sewer, Septic tank, Comparison, Economy

Capacity strengthening in sanitation: benefits of a long term collaboration with a utility and research institute

Refereed paper presented at 35th WEDC International Conference, Laughborough, UK, 2011
M. Bassan and L. Strande-Gaulke (2011)

Influence of sand layer depth and percolate impounding regime on nitrogen transformation in vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating faecal sludge
A. Panuvatvanich, T. Koottatep, D. Kone (2009)

Keywords: Denitrification, Faecal sludge treatment, Impounding regime, Nitrification, Vertical-flow constructed wetlands

Hydraulic behaviour of vertical-flow constructed wetland under different operating conditions
A. Panuvatvanich, T. Koottatep, D. Kone (2009)

Keywords: Constructed wetland, Drainage pattern, Feeding pattern, Hydraulic behaviour, Tracer study

Improving Environmental Sanitation, Health, and Well-Being: A Conceptual Framework for Integral Interventions
H. Nguyen-Viet, J. Zinsstag, R. Schertenleib, C. Zurbrügg, B. Obrist (2009)

Keywords: Integrated approach, Health, Environmental sanitation, MFA, QMRA, Social sciences

Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste for agriculture: Process dynamics
O. Cofie, D. Kone, S. Rothenberger, D. Moser (2009)

Keywords: Excreta, Feacal sludge, Solid waste, Co-composting, Compost quality, Nutrients

Recovery of Biosolids from Constructed Wetlands Used for Faecal Sludge Dewatering in Tropical Regions
I.M. Kengne, A. Akoa, D. Kone (2009)

Keywords: Faecal sludge, Dewatering, Biosolids, Recovery, Constructed wetlands

Vertical-flow constructed wetlands as sustainable sanitation approach for faecal sludge dewatering in developing countries
I.M. Kengne, P.H. Dodane, A. Akoa, D. Kone (2009)

Keywords: Echinochloa pyramidalis, Biosolids, Developing countries, Faecal sludge, Sustainable approach, Vertical-flow constructed wetlands

An approach to optimise nutrient management in environmental sanitation systems despite limited data
A. Montangero, H. Belevi (2008)

Keywords: Environmental sanitation, Developing countries, Material flow analysis, Nutrient recovery, Phosphorus, Data scarcity, Data uncertainty, Plausibility assessment

Effects of faecal sludge application on growth characteristics and chemical composition of Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitch. and Chase and Cyperus papyrus L.
I.M. Kengne, A. Akoa, E.K. Soh, V. Tsama, M.M. Ngoutane, P.H. Dodane, D. Kone (2008)

Keywords: Antelope grass, Constructed wetlands, Cyperus papyrus, Echinochloa pyramidalis, Faecal sludge, Growth characteristics, Nutrient contents, Planted drying beds, Sludge dewatering beds, Vertical-flow constructed wetlands

Towards an Improved Faecal Sludge Management (FSM)
Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium and Workshop on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) Policy. Dakar, Senegal, 9 – 12 May 2006
D. Koné, M. Strauss, D. Saywell (2007)
Optimising water and phosphorus management in the urban environmental sanitation system of Hanoi, Vietnam
A. Montangero, L.N. Cau, N.V. Anh, V.D. Tuan (2007)

Keywords: Environmental sanitation, Material flow analysis, Phosphorus, Nutrient recovery, Hanoi, Developing countries

Assessing nutrient flows in septic tanks by eliciting expert judgement: A promising method in the context of developing countries
A. Montangero, H. Belevi (2007)

Keywords: On-site sanitation systems, Nutrient, Material flow analysis, Developing countries, Data scarcity, Expert knowledge

Helminth eggs inactivation efficiency by faecal sludge dewatering and co-composting in tropical climates
D. Kone, O. Cofie, C. Zurbrügg, K. Gallizzi, D. Moser, S. Drescher, M. Strauss (2007)

Keywords: Ascaris, Co-composting, Drying beds, Faecal sludge, Helminth eggs, Trichuris

For a PDF version, please contact Catarina Dalla Torre

Low-cost Options for Treating Faecal Sludges (FS) in Developing Countries – Challenges and Performance (French version also available)
D. Koné, M. Strauss (2004)

Keywords: Faecal sludge, Septage, Stabilization ponds, Constructed wetlands, Drying beds
Septage Treatment using wastewater stabilization ponds
R. G. Fernández, A. M. Ingallinella, G. S. Sanguinetti, G. E. Ballan, V. Bortolotti, A. Montangero, M. Strauss (2004)

Keywords: Septage treatment, Sludge, Stabilization ponds
Constructed Wetlands for Septage Treatment – Towards Effective faecal Sludge Management
Th. Koottatep, C. Polprasert, N.T.K. Oanh, N. Surinkul, A. Montangero, M. Strauss (2004)

Keywords: Cattails, Constructed wetlands, Faecal sludge, Septage management, treatment, On-site sanitation

Material fluxes in constructed wetlands treating septage and their polishing systems
T. Koottatep, N. Surinkul, A.S.M. Kamal, C. Polprasert, A. Montangero, K. Doulaye, M. Strauss (2004)

Keywords: Material fluxes, Percolate polishing systems, Septage treatment, Vertical-flow constructed wetlands

Investigating helminth eggs and Salmonella sp. in stabilization ponds treating septage
G. Sanguinetti, C. Tortul, M.C. Garcìa, A. Montangero, M. Strauss (2004)

Keywords: Ascaris, Biosolids, Helminth eggs inactivation, Primary ponds, Salmonella, Septage

Fäkalschlammbehandlung in den Tropen am Beispiel von Vererdungsbeeten
U. Heinss, A. Montangero, M. Strauss, T. Koottatep (2003)

Keywords: Abwasserreinigung, kommunal, Schlamm, Fäkalschlamm, Behandlung, Verfahren, Entwicklungsland. Schwermetall, Rohschlamm, Vererdung

Urban excreta management - Situation, challenges, and promising solutions
M. Strauss, W.C. Barreiro, M. Steiner, A. Mensah, M. Jeuland, S. Bolomey, A. Montangero, D. Koné (2003)

Keywords: Entrepreneurs, Faecal sludge management, Institutional, Money flux, On-site sanitation
Planning towards improved excreta management
A. Montangero, D. Koné. M. Strauss (2002)

Keywords: Excreta, Faecal sludge management, Nightsoil, On-site sanitation, Septage

Nam Dinh – Planning for Improved Faecal Sludge Management and Treatment
F. Klingel, A. Montangero, M. Strauss (2001)

Keywords: Collection, Faecal sludge, Organic fertilizer, Management, Septage, Treatment
Nam Dinh Urban Development Project Septage Management Study
F. Klingel (2001)

Keywords: Nam Dinh Urban Development Project, Septage Management Study, Vietnam
Sludges from on-site sanitation systems - low-cost treatment alternatives
T. Koottatep, C. Polprasert, N.T.K Oanh, A. Montangero, M. Strauss (2001)

Keywords: Cattails, Constructed wetlands, Faecal sludge treatment, Septage, On-site sanitation
The challenge of faecal sludge management in urban areas – strategies, regulations and treatment options
A.M. Ingallinella, G. Sanguinetti, T. Koottatep, A. Montagnero, M. Strauss (2001)

Keywords: Faecal sludge, Hygienic quality, Septage, Sludge, Standards, Treatment
Lagunas de estabilizacìon para descarga de liquidos de camiones atmosphericos
A.M. Ingallinella, R. Fernàndez, G. Sanguinetti, L- Hergert, H. Quevedo, A. Montagnero, M. Strauss (2001)

Keywords: Camiones atmosféricos, Calidad físico-química, Calidad microbiológica, Lagunas de estabilización, Lodos, Huevos de helmintos
Cuando lo tanques septicos estan illenos - el desafio des manejo y tratamiento de lodos fecales
A. Montangero, M. Strauss, M. Ingallinella, T. Koottatep, S.A. Larmie (2001)

Keywords: Tanques sépticos, Tratamiento de lodos fecales, Wetlands artificiales, Lagunas de estabilización, Toxicidad del amoniaco
Gestion des boues de vidange: Parent pauvre de l’assainissement et défi à relever
A. Montangero, M. Strauss, A. Dembelé (2000)

Keywords: Gestion de boues de vidange
Cotreatment of sewage and septage in waste stabilization ponds
A.M. Ingallinella, G. Sanguinetti, R.G. Fernandez, M. Strauss, A. Montangero (2000)

Keywords: Effluent quality, Septage, Sewage, Sludge, Waste stabilization ponds, Vacuum trucks
Treating Faecal Sludges in Ponds
M. Strauss, S.A. Larmie, U. Heinss, A. Montangero (1999)

Keywords: Ammonia toxicity, Anaerobic ponds, Facultative ponds, Faecal sludge(s), Septage

Project reports, Guidelines, Manuals and Articles

Waste heat recovery from cement production for faecal sludge drying
S. Diener, J.C. Reiser, M. Mbéguéré, L. Strande (2012)

Keywords: Faecal sludge, Waste heat, Reuse, Drying, Senegal

Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines
D. Robbins, L. Strande, J. Doczi (2012)

Keywords: Faecal sludge management, Comparison, Philippines

Gestion des Boues de Vidange - optimisation de la filière
M. Mbéguéré, P.H. Dodane, D. Koné (2011)

Keywords: Gestion, Boues de vidange, Aspects financiers, Optimisation des technologies

Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries
A. Morel, S. Diener (2006)

Keywords: Greywater management, Low-middle income countries, Review

Private Sector Management of Fecal Sludge: A Model for the Future?
Focus on an innovative planning experience in Bamako, Mali

M. Jeuland, M. Strauss, D. Koné (2004)

Keywords: Faecal sludge management, Private sector, Mali

La collecte et le transport mécanisés des boues de vidange dans la ville de Ouahigouya (Burkina Faso): Analyse du marché et propositions de réorganisation des flux financiers
P. Blunier (2004)

Keywords: Boues de vidange, Collection, Transport mécanisé, Burkina Faso

Quantification des boues de vidange. Exemple de la ville de Ouahigouya, Burkina Faso
P. Blunier, H. Koanda, D. Koné, M. Strauss, A. Klutsé, J. Tarradellas (2004)

Keywords: Boues de vidange, Méthode de quantification, production, Collecte, Ville moyenne, Afrique Subsaharienne
Nitrogen in Co-compost and other chemical compost analyses. Report of a field study in Kumasi, Ghana
M. Tanner (2003)

Keywords: Chemical analysis, Combined composting, Faecal sludge, Rainwater harvesting

Co-Composting Reduces Helminth Eggs in Fecal Sludge. A Field Study in Kumasi, Ghana
K. Gallizzi (2003)

Keywords: Combined composting, Helminth eggs, Reduction, Faecal sludge

Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Municipal Organic Waste. A Literature and State-of-Knowledge Review
M. Strauss, S. Drescher, C. Zurbrügg, A. Montangero, O. Cofie, P. Drechsel (2003)

Keywords: Combined composting, faecal sludge, organic waste, Kumasi

Amélioration de la gestion des boues de vidange par le renforcement du secteur privé local : Etudes et Outils. Cas de la Commune VI du District de Bamako
S. Bolomey, D. Koné, M. Strauss (2003)

Keywords: Gestion de boues de vidange, renforcement, secteur privé local, Mali

Amélioration de la gestion de boues de vidange par le renforcement de secteur privé local. Enquête socio-économique sur la gestion des boues de vidange dans la Commune VI du District de Bamako
S. Bolomey, D. Koné, M. Strauss (2003)

Keywords: Gestion de boues de vidange, renforcement, secteur privé local, socio-économique, Mali

Amélioration de la gestion des boues de vidange par le renforcement du secteur privé local. Cas de la Commune VI du District de Bamako
S. Bolomey, D. Koné, M. Strauss (2003)

Keywords: Gestion de boues de vidange, renforcement, secteur privé local, Mali

Fecal Sludge Management in Developing Countries. A planning manual (French version also available)
F. Klingel, A. Montangero, D. Koné, M. Strauss (2002)

Keywords: Faecal sludge management, on-site sanitation, collection, treatment, septic tank, manual

Economic Aspects of Low-cost Faecal Sludge Management: Estimation of Collection, Haulage, Treatment and Disposal/Reuse Cost
M. Steiner, A. Montangero, D. Koné, M. Strauss, M. Steiner, A. Montangero, D. Koné, M. Strauss (2002)

Keywords: Faecal sludge management, costs, collection, treatment, reuse, cost estimate tool

Towards More Sustainable Faecal Sludge Management Through Innovative Financing Selected Money Flow Options (French version also available)
M. Steiner, A. Montangero, D. Koné, M. Strauss (2002)

Keywords: Faecal sludge management, costs, collection, treatment, reuse, money flow options
FS Management – Review of Practices, Problems and Initiatives
M. Strauss, A. Montangero (2002)

Keywords: Faecal sludge, collection, treatment, management
Co-composting of Faecal Sludge and Solid Waste. Preliminary Recommendations on Design and Operation of Cocomposting Plants based on the Kumasi Pilot Investigation
IWMI & SANDEC (2002)

Keywords: Combined compostng, faecal sludge, economic aspect, institutional framework, environmental impact, socio-cultural aspects
Faecal Sludge Treatment
A. Montangero, M. Strauss (2001)

Faecal sludge, treatment, collection, transport, septage, septic tanks, reuse
Treatment of septage in constructed wetlands in tropical climate – Lessons learnt after seven years of operation
Th. Koottatep, U. Heinss, M. Strauss (2000)

Keywords: Septage treatment; vertical-flow constructed wetlands
Design considerations of constructed wetlands for septage treatment at the AIT pilot plant
Th. Koottatep, C. Polprasert, N.T.K. Oanh (1999)

Keywords: Faecal sludge, septage, constructed wetlands, vertical, Typha augustifolia
Preliminary Guidelines for design and operation of constructed wetlands treating septage
Th. Koottatep, C. Polprasert, N.T.K. Oanh (1999)

Keywords: Faecal sludge, septage, constructed wetlands, vertical, Typha augustifolia, guidelines
Fate of metals and heavy metals in constructed wetlands for septage dewatering
N. Staelens, C. Polprasert, Th. Koottstep, P. Parkpian (1999)

Keywords: Septage, constructed wetlands, vertical flow, heavy metals, metals

EWM articles in the Sandec News

Sandec News No. 13
Diarrhoeal Disease Related to Agricultural Wastewater and Excreta Use in Vietnam
P. P. Duc, H. Nguyen-Viet, J. Hattendorf, J. Zinsstag, C. Zurbrügg, P. D. Cam, P. Odermatt (2012)
Institutional Framework for Faecal Sludge Collection and Transport in Burkina Faso
M. Bassan, L. Strande (2012)
Recovery of Industrial Waste Heat for Faecal Sludge Drying
S. Diener, J. C. Reiser, A. Murray, M. Mbéguéré, L. Strande (2012)
Sandec News No. 12
Providing Sanitation Solutions Through Value Chain Management
S. Diener, M. Mbéguéré, L. Strande (2011)
Urine as a Resource in Nepal
B. Etter, E. Tilley, K. M. Udert (2011)
Planted Drying Beds for Faecal Sludge Treatment: Lessons Learned Through Scaling Up in Dakar, Senegal
P.-H. Dodane, M. Mbéguéré, I. M. Kengne, L. Strande (2011)
Capacity Strengthening in Sanitation – Benefits of a Research – Operator Collaboration
M. Bassan, M. Mbéguéré, L. Strande (2011)
Sandec News No. 11
Improving Farmers’ Wastewater Handling Practice in Vietnam
T. V. Van, P. D. Phuc, N. T. Huong, A. Tamas, C. Zurbrügg (2010)
Financial Assessment of Dakar’s Sewer vs Faecal Sludge Management
M. Mbéguéré, P.-H. Dodane, O. Sow, D. Koné (2010)
The Glass Wetland Unit in the Slum of Manchay, Lima, Peru
C. Archetti, M. Ragazzi, G. Zolezzi (2010)
A New Perspective for Sludge Management
S. Diener, D. H. Nguyen, T. Koottatep, A. Morel (2010)
Health Risks from Excreta and Wastewater to Vietnamese Farmers
N. C. Khuong, P. D. Phuc, T. H. Bich, H. Nguyen-Viet (2010)
Parasitic Infection from Agricultural Wastewater and Excreta Use in Vietnam
P. P. Duc, H. Nguyen Viet, J. Zinsstag, P. Dac Cam, P. Odermatt (2010)
Sandec News No. 10
Improvement of Faecal Sludge Management Strategy in Thailand
T. Koottatep, S. Jiawkok, A. Morel (2009)
Developing Strategies for Faecal Sludge Management
T. Koottatep, S. Jiawkok (2009)
Socio-Economic Profile of Domestic Faecal Sludge Emptying Companies
M. Mbéguéré, J. B. Gning, P.-H. Dodane, D. Koné (2009)
Technico-Financial Optimisation of Unplanted Drying Beds
P.-H. Dodane, M. Mbéguéré, D. Koné (2009)
Struvite from Urine in Nepal (STUN)
E. Tilley, B. Etter, B. Gantenbein, R. Khadka, K. M. Udert (2009)
Sandec News No. 9
Forage Plants Used in Faecal Sludge Dewatering Beds in Sub-Saharan Africa
D. Koné, I. Kengne (2008)
Development of Nitrogen Transformation Model for VFCWs Treating Faecal Sludge
A. Panuvatvanich, T. Koottatep, D. Koné (2008)
Sandec News No. 8
Excreta and Wastewater Management Contributing to Cities’ Economic Development – A Paradigm Shift
D. Koné (2007)
Sandec News No. 7
Partnership for Building Expertise on Faecal Sludge Treatment in West Africa
A. Baumeyer, D. Koné, M. Strauss (2006)
Stakeholder Involvement and Money Fluxes for Sustainable Faecal Sludge Management in Burkina Faso
H. Koanda, D. Koné, M. Strauss (2006)
Sandec News No. 6
Faecal Sludge Management (FSM)
M. Strauss, D. Koné (2005)
Sandec News No. 5
Faecal Sludge Treatment and Management – Research, Extension and Dissemination
M. Strauss, A. Montangero (2002)
Sandec News No. 4
Excreta News - Field Research Progress in Faecal Sludge (FS) Treatment
M. Strauss, U. Heinss, A. Montangero (1999)
When the Pits are Full - Strategic Issues in FS Management
M. Strauss, U. Heinss, A. Montangero (1999)
Sandec News No. 3
Faecal Sludge (FS) Treatment - Highlights
M. Strauss, U. Heinss (1997)
Sandec News No. 2
Faecal Sludge (FS) Treatment - Progress in Brief
M. Strauss, U. Heinss (1996)
Sandec News No. 1
Faecal Sludge Treatment - Challenges, Process Options and Field Research: A State-of-knowledge Report
M. Strauss, U. Heinss (1995)


Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries
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