Staff

Kristin Schirmer

Prof. Dr. Kristin Schirmer

Head of department

Department Environmental Toxicology

About Me

Head of Department of Environmental Toxicology

Cell Biologist/Toxicologist

Adjunct Assistant Professor

ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental Science (USYS)
EPF Lausanne, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering (ENAC)

Research Interests
My expertise is in animal cell biology and environmental toxicology. Both of these research areas have experienced dramatic and exciting developments throughout the past decades. Especially the advances in technologies to identify and characterize large numbers of genes as well as proteins have laid the foundation for revolutionary new insights into the functioning of cells. In environmental toxicology, focus has shifted from exploring the effects of acute exposures to high concentrations of toxic substances to the effects of very low, chronic exposures, which change gene expression and protein function. Thus, I believe that linking cell biology and environmental toxicology is a powerful combination for deriving information regarding routes and risks of exposure of animals and humans to toxic substances and for developing strategies to protect the ecosystem and sustain natural resources.

My specific research interest is in elucidating how (potential) environmental contaminants, such as industrial chemicals, personal care products and engineered nanoparticles, interact with vertebrate cells. I focus on the compartment water, applying piscine and mammalian cell models. My philosophy for working on the cellular and molecular level evolves from the role of cells as initial targets of any interaction with environmental contaminants. Thus, knowledge about changes to cellular function is important for understanding and predicting the effects on a higher level of biological organization. I am working toward linking changes on the molecular level and whole organism effects and the advancement of in vitro approaches to enable resource-efficient environmental monitoring and a reduction in the use of animals in toxicology.

Teaching Philosophy
One of my general aims in teaching is to raise the students' appreciation for the natural environment and their personal role in it. I like to get students excited about the many unanswered questions in nature. At the same time I want them to observe how achievements and new discoveries are being made and how important it is to have an open, but critical, and inquiring mind. I am aware that not all undergraduate students will actually become professional environmental scientists. However, all of them will be exposed to the rapid and often controversial developments in this area and I wish to provide the basics that enable students to make objective judgments. Inasmuch as most research questions today can only be answered in the context of a number of disciplines, I pursue an interdisciplinary approach not only to research but also to teaching.

Selected special recognitions that I have received
2019            Recipient of the 3RCC Award of the Swiss3R Competence Centre (together with my                     colleague Melanie Fischer)

2017            Venture competition – New business idea: the Rainbow Biosystem; 3rd prize
2007            SETAC Environmental Education Award
                    http://www.setac.org/htdocs/what_awarde_education.html
2007            Felix-Wankel Animal Welfare Research Award
                    http://idw.tu-clausthal.de/pages/de/news204025
2007            Technology Transfer Award for Ceramic Toximeter passives sampler (Helmholtz Centre for                     Environmental Research - UFZ)
1998            W.B. Pearson Medal for recognition of creative research in a Doctoral thesis
1997            Best Student Platform Presentation Award, 24th Aquatic Toxicity Workshop
1994-1996   University of Waterloo and Ontario International Graduate Student Scholarship

Before coming to Eawag, I have trained students from about 11 different nations und lectured courses or supervised labs in...
Cell Biology, Environmental Biochemistry, Immunology, Animal and Plant Cell Biotechnology, Environmental Microbiology and Microorganisms in Food.

I am now teaching courses in...
“Ecotoxicology” (Bachelor level, EPFL), “Advanced Ecotoxicology” (M.Sc./Ph.D. level, ETHZ) and “Molecular Ecotoxicology” (M.Sc. laboratory training course, ETHZ). Moreover, I am very interested in teaching specific knowledge and skills, e.g. scientific integrity.


In my lab, we are currently tackling the following research questions...
What are the molecular and cellular mechanisms of toxicity of chemicals and particles to fish cells and fish early life stages?

Can we derive in vitro alternatives to experimental animals, particularly fish, for chemical risk assessment?

How can we improve water quality assessment and control by small scale bioassays and chip devices?

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Curriculum Vitae

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Publications

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Kirla, K. T., Erhart, C., Groh, K. J., Stadnicka-Michalak, J., Eggen, R. I. L., Schirmer, K., & Kraemer, T. (2021). Zebrafish early life stages as alternative model to study 'designer drugs': concordance with mammals in response to opioids. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 419, 115483 (11 pp.). doi:10.1016/j.taap.2021.115483, Institutional Repository
Opršal, J., Knotek, P., Zickler, G. A., Sigg, L., Schirmer, K., Pouzar, M., & Geppert, M. (2021). Cytotoxicity, accumulation and translocation of silver and silver sulfide nanoparticles in contact with rainbow trout intestinal cells. Aquatic Toxicology, 105869. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105869, Institutional Repository
Paparella, M., Scholz, S., Belanger, S., Braunbeck, T., Bicherel, P., Connors, K., … Walter-Rohde, S. (2021). Limitations and uncertainties of acute fish toxicity assessments can be reduced using alternative methods. ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, 38(1), 20-32. doi:10.14573/altex.2006051, Institutional Repository
Stadnicka-Michalak, J., Bramaz, N., Schönenberger, R., & Schirmer, K. (2021). Predicting exposure concentrations of chemicals with a wide range of volatility and hydrophobicity in different multi-well plate set-ups. Scientific Reports, 11, 4860 (14 pp.). doi:10.1038/s41598-021-84109-9, Institutional Repository
Burkard, M., Betz, A., Schirmer, K., & Zupanic, A. (2020). Common gene expression patterns in environmental model organisms exposed to engineered nanomaterials: a meta-analysis. Environmental Science and Technology, 54(1), 335-344. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b05170, Institutional Repository
Tierbach, A., Groh, K. J., Schoenenberger, R., Schirmer, K., & Suter, M. J. F. (2020). Biotransformation capacity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) early life stages: functionality of the mercapturic acid pathway. Toxicological Sciences, 176(2), 355-365. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfaa073, Institutional Repository
Tierbach, A., Groh, K. J., Schoenenberger, R., Schirmer, K., & Suter, M. J. F. (2020). Characterization of the mercapturic acid pathway, an important phase II biotransformation route, in a zebrafish embryo cell line. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 33(11), 2863-2871. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.0c00315, Institutional Repository
Tierbach, A., Groh, K. J., Schönenberger, R., Schirmer, K., & Suter, M. J. F. (2020). LC-APCI(-)-MS determination of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a model substrate for glutathione S-transferases. Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, 31, 467-472. doi:10.1021/jasms.9b00116, Institutional Repository
Burkard, M., Bengtson Nash, S., Gambaro, G., Whitworth, D., & Schirmer, K. (2019). Lifetime extension of humpback whale skin fibroblasts and their response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor). Cell Biology and Toxicology, 35(4), 387-398. doi:10.1007/s10565-018-09457-1, Institutional Repository
Bussolaro, D., Wright, S. L., Schnell, S., Schirmer, K., Bury, N. R., & Arlt, V. M. (2019). Co-exposure to polystyrene plastic beads and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants in fish gill (RTgill-W1) and intestinal (RTgutGC) epithelial cells derived from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environmental Pollution, 248, 706-714. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.02.066, Institutional Repository
Drieschner, C., Könemann, S., Renaud, P., & Schirmer, K. (2019). Fish-gut-on-chip: development of a microfluidic bioreactor to study the role of the fish intestine in vitro. Lab on a Chip, 19(19), 3268-3276. doi:10.1039/C9LC00415G, Institutional Repository
Drieschner, C., Vo, N. T. K., Schug, H., Burkard, M., Bols, N. C., Renaud, P., & Schirmer, K. (2019). Improving a fish intestinal barrier model by combining two rainbow trout cell lines: epithelial RTgutGC and fibroblastic RTgutF. Cytotechnology, 71(4), 835-848. doi:10.1007/s10616-019-00327-0, Institutional Repository
Fischer, M., Belanger, S. E., Berckmans, P., Bernhard, M. J., Bláha, L., Coman Schmid, D. E., … Schirmer, K. (2019). Repeatability and reproducibility of the RTgill-W1 cell line assay for predicting fish acute toxicity. Toxicological Sciences, 169(2), 353-364. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfz057, Institutional Repository
Maner, J., Burkard, M., Cassano, J. C., Bengtson Nash, S. M., Schirmer, K., & Suter, M. J. F. (2019). Hexachlorobenzene exerts genotoxic effects in a humpback whale cell line under stable exposure conditions. RSC Advances, 9(67), 39447-39457. doi:10.1039/C9RA05352B, Institutional Repository
Minghetti, M., & Schirmer, K. (2019). Interference of silver nanoparticles with essential metal homeostasis in a novel enterohepatic fish in vitro system. Environmental Science: Nano (6), 1777-1790. doi:10.1039/C9EN00310J, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., Stadnicka-Michalak, J., Belanger, S. E., Blaha, L., Bols, N. C., Dyer, S. D., … Zupanic, A. (2019). Cell-based data to predict the toxicity of chemicals to fish. Commentary on the manuscript by Rodrigues et al., 2019. Cell-based assays seem not to accurately predict fish short-term toxicity of pesticides. Environmental Pollution 252:476–482. Environmental Pollution, 254(B), 113060 (3 pp.). doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113060, Institutional Repository
Schug, H., Maner, J., Hülskamp, M., Begnaud, F., Debonneville, C., Berthaud, F., … Schirmer, K. (2019). Extending the concept of predicting fish acute toxicity in vitro to the intestinal cell line RTgutGC. ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (9 pp.). doi:10.14573/altex.1905032, Institutional Repository
Schug, H., Maner, J., Begnaud, F., Berthaud, F., Gimeno, S., Schirmer, K., & Županič, A. (2019). Intestinal fish cell barrier model to assess transfer of organic chemicals in vitro: an experimental and computational study. Environmental Science and Technology, 53(20), 12062-12070. doi:10.1021/acs.est.9b04281, Institutional Repository
Schug, H., Yue, Y., Krese, R., Fischer, S., Kortner, T. M., & Schirmer, K. (2019). Time- and concentration-dependent expression of immune and barrier genes in the RTgutGC fish intestinal model following immune stimulation. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 88, 308-317. doi:10.1016/j.fsi.2019.02.036, Institutional Repository
Stadnicka-Michalak, J., & Schirmer, K. (2019). In vitro-in vivo extrapolation to predict bioaccumulation and toxicity of chemicals in fish using physiologically based toxicokinetic models. Methods in pharmacology and toxicology. . doi:10.1007/7653_2019_34, Institutional Repository
Sørensen, S. N., Baun, A., Burkard, M., Dal Maso, M., Foss Hansen, S., Harrison, S., … Spurgeon, D. J. (2019). Evaluating environmental risk assessment models for nanomaterials according to requirements along the product innovation Stage-Gate process. Environmental Science: Nano, 6, 505-518. doi:10.1039/C8EN00933C, Institutional Repository
Vignet, C., Cappello, T., Fu, Q., Lajoie, K., De Marco, G., Clérandeau, C., … Cachot, J. (2019). Imidacloprid induces adverse effects on fish early life stages that are more severe in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) than in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere, 225, 470-478. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.002, Institutional Repository
Wang, J., Lei, P., Gamil, A. A. A., Lagos, L., Yue, Y., Schirmer, K., … Kortner, T. M. (2019). Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestinal epithelial cells as a model for studying gut immune function and effects of functional feed ingredients. Frontiers in Immunology, 10, 152 (17 pp.). doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.00152, Institutional Repository
Drieschner, C. (2018). What is the role of fish intestine as environment-organism barrier? Mechanistic investigations using fish intestinal cells on a chip (Doctoral dissertation). EPFL Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 102 p. , Institutional Repository
Gil-Allué, C., Tlili, A., Schirmer, K., Gessner, M. O., & Behra, R. (2018). Long-term exposure to silver nanoparticles affects periphyton community structure and function. Environmental Science: Nano, 5(6), 1397-1407. doi:10.1039/C8EN00132D, Institutional Repository
Kirla, K. T., Groh, K. J., Poetzsch, M., Banote, R. K., Stadnicka-Michalak, J., Eggen, R. I. L., … Kraemer, T. (2018). Importance of toxicokinetics to assess the utility of zebrafish larvae as model for psychoactive drug screening using meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) as example. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9, 414 (12 pp.). doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00414, Institutional Repository
Lead, J. R., Batley, G. E., Alvarez, P. J. J., Croteau, M. N., Handy, R. D., McLaughlin, M. J., … Schirmer, K. (2018). Nanomaterials in the environment: behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects—an updated review. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 37(8), 2029-2063. doi:10.1002/etc.4147, Institutional Repository
Schug, H. (2018). A fish intestinal barrier model to assess the interaction with chemicals in vitro (Doctoral dissertation). École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, 207 p. , Institutional Repository
Schug, H., Begnaud, F., Debonneville, C., Berthaud, F., Gimeno, S., & Schirmer, K. (2018). TransFEr: a new device to measure the transfer of volatile and hydrophobic organic chemicals across an in vitro intestinal fish cell barrier. Analytical Methods, 10(36), 4394-4403. doi:10.1039/C8AY01253A, Institutional Repository
Stadnicka-Michalak, J., Knöbel, M., Županič, A., & Schirmer, K. (2018). A validated algorithm for selecting non-toxic chemical concentrations. ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, 35(1), 37-50. doi:10.14573/altex.1701231, Institutional Repository
Stadnicka-Michalak, J., Weiss, F. T., Fischer, M., Tanneberger, K., & Schirmer, K. (2018). Biotransformation of benzo [a] pyrene by three rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) cell lines and extrapolation to derive a fish bioconcentration factor. Environmental Science and Technology, 52(5), 3091-3100. doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b04548, Institutional Repository
Tierbach, A., Groh, K. J., Schönenberger, R., Schirmer, K., & Suter, M. J. F. (2018). Glutathione S-transferase protein expression in different life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicological Sciences, 162(2), 702-712. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfx293, Institutional Repository
Zupanic, A., Pillai, S., Coman Schmid, D., & Schirmer, K. (2018). Green algae and networks for adverse outcome pathways. In N. Garcia-Reyero & C. Murphy (Eds.), A systems biology approach to advancing adverse outcome pathways for risk assessment (pp. 133-148). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-66084-4_7, Institutional Repository
Armitage, J. M., Erickson, R. J., Luckenbach, T., Ng, C. A., Prosser, R. S., Arnot, J. A., … Nichols, J. W. (2017). Assessing the bioaccumulation potential of ionizable organic compounds: current knowledge and research priorities. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 36(4), 882-897. doi:10.1002/etc.3680, Institutional Repository
Böhler, M., Fleiner, J., Siegrist, H., McArdell, C. S., Teichler, R., Bourgin, M., … Blunschi, M. (2017). Biologische Nachbehandlung von kommunalem Abwasser nach Ozonung – ReTREAT. Schlussbericht. Dübendorf: Eawag. , Institutional Repository
Drieschner, C., Minghetti, M., Wu, S., Renaud, P., & Schirmer, K. (2017). Ultrathin alumina membranes as scaffold for epithelial cell culture from the intestine of rainbow trout. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 9(11), 9496-9505. doi:10.1021/acsami.7b00705, Institutional Repository
Fischer, S., Fischer, M., Schirmer, K., & Werner, I. (2017). Wirkungsorientierte Gewässerüberwachung: Biomonitoring mit Forellen. Studie im Auftrag des Bundesamtes für Umwelt (BAFU). Abschlussbericht 2017. Dübendorf: Oekotoxzentrum, Eawag/EPFL. , Institutional Repository
Hidasi, A. O., Groh, K. J., Suter, M. J. F., & Schirmer, K. (2017). Clobetasol propionate causes immunosuppression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 138, 16-24. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.11.024, Institutional Repository
Isaacson, C. W., Sigg, L., Ammann, A. A., Stadnicka-Michalak, J., & Schirmer, K. (2017). Interactions of TiO2 nanoparticles and the freshwater nematode Plectus aquatilis: particle properties, kinetic parameters and bioconcentration factors. Environmental Science: Nano, 4(3), 712-719. doi:10.1039/c6en00495d, Institutional Repository
Minghetti, M., Drieschner, C., Bramaz, N., Schug, H., & Schirmer, K. (2017). A fish intestinal epithelial barrier model established from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cell line, RTgutGC. Cell Biology and Toxicology, 33(6), 539-555. doi:10.1007/s10565-017-9385-x, Institutional Repository
Mottaz, H., Schönenberger, R., Fischer, S., Eggen, R. I. L., Schirmer, K., & Groh, K. J. (2017). Dose-dependent effects of morphine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation, and involvement of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transporters in LPS efflux in teleost fish. Environmental Pollution, 221, 105-115. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.046, Institutional Repository
Niklaus, S., Kirla, K. T., Kraemer, T., Groh, K., Schirmer, K., & Neuhauss, S. (2017). Cocaine accumulation in zebrafish eyes leads to augmented amplitudes in the electroretinogram. Matters, 201703000003 (4 pp.). doi:10.19185/matters.201703000003, Institutional Repository
Tan, L., & Schirmer, K. (2017). Cell culture-based biosensing techniques for detecting toxicity in water. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 45, 59-68. doi:10.1016/j.copbio.2016.11.026, Institutional Repository
Tousova, Z., Oswald, P., Slobodnik, J., Blaha, L., Muz, M., Hu, M., … Schulze, T. (2017). European demonstration program on the effect-based and chemical identification and monitoring of organic pollutants in European surface waters. Science of the Total Environment, 601-602, 1849-1868. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.032, Institutional Repository
Yue, Y., Li, X., Sigg, L., Suter, M. J. F., Pillai, S., Behra, R., & Schirmer, K. (2017). Interaction of silver nanoparticles with algae and fish cells: a side by side comparison. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 15, 16 (11 pp.). doi:10.1186/s12951-017-0254-9, Institutional Repository
Geppert, M., Sigg, L., & Schirmer, K. (2016). A novel two-compartment barrier model for investigating nanoparticle transport in fish intestinal epithelial cells. Environmental Science: Nano, 3(2), 388-395. doi:10.1039/c5en00226e, Institutional Repository
Hülskamp, M. (2016). Assessment of the permeation of the fragrance Tonalide across the fish intestinal barrier in vitro (Master thesis). 65 p. , Institutional Repository
Jemec, A., Kahru, A., Potthoff, A., Drobne, D., Heinlaan, M., Böhme, S., … Kühnel, D. (2016). An interlaboratory comparison of nanosilver characterisation and hazard identification: harmonising techniques for high quality data. Environment International, 87, 20-32. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2015.10.014, Institutional Repository
Kirla, K. T., Groh, K. J., Steuer, A. E., Poetzsch, M., Banote, R. K., Stadnicka-Michalak, J., … Kraemer, T. (2016). Zebrafish larvae are insensitive to stimulation by cocaine: importance of exposure route and toxicokinetics. Toxicological Sciences, 154(1), 183-193. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfw156, Institutional Repository
Kopecka-Pilarczyk, J., & Schirmer, K. (2016). Contribution of hepatic cytochrome CYP1A and metallothionein mRNA abundance to biomonitoring - a case study with European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the Gulf of Gdańsk. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 188, 24-29. doi:10.1016/j.cbpc.2016.06.001, Institutional Repository
Lillicrap, A., Belanger, S., Burden, N., Du Pasquier, D., Embry, M. R., Halder, M., … Thomas, P. (2016). Alternative approaches to vertebrate ecotoxicity tests in the 21st century: a review of developments over the last 2 decades and current status. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 35(11), 2637-2646. doi:10.1002/etc.3603, Institutional Repository
Mestankova, H., Parker, A. M., Bramaz, N., Canonica, S., Schirmer, K., von Gunten, U., & Linden, K. G. (2016). Transformation of Contaminant Candidate List (CCL3) compounds during ozonation and advanced oxidation processes in drinking water: assessment of biological effects. Water Research, 93, 110-120. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.12.048, Institutional Repository
Minghetti, M., & Schirmer, K. (2016). Effect of media composition on bioavailability and toxicity of silver and silver nanoparticles in fish intestinal cells (RTgutGC). Nanotoxicology, 10(10), 1526-1534. doi:10.1080/17435390.2016.1241908, Institutional Repository
Yue, Y., Behra, R., Sigg, L., & Schirmer, K. (2016). Silver nanoparticles inhibit fish gill cell proliferation in protein-free culture medium. Nanotoxicology, 10(8), 1075-1083. doi:10.3109/17435390.2016.1172677, Institutional Repository
Yue, Y., Behra, R., Sigg, L., Suter, M. J. F., Pillai, S., & Schirmer, K. (2016). Silver nanoparticle–protein interactions in intact rainbow trout gill cells. Environmental Science: Nano, 3(5), 1174-1185. doi:10.1039/c6en00119j, Institutional Repository
Burkard, M., Whitworth, D., Schirmer, K., & Nash, S. B. (2015). Establishment of the first humpback whale fibroblast cell lines and their application in chemical risk assessment. Aquatic Toxicology, 167, 240-247. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.08.005, Institutional Repository
Di Paolo, C., Groh, K. J., Zennegg, M., Vermeirssen, E. L. M., Murk, A. J., Eggen, R. I. L., … Schirmer, K. (2015). Early life exposure to PCB126 results in delayed mortality and growth impairment in the zebrafish larvae. Aquatic Toxicology, 169, 168-178. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.10.014, Institutional Repository
Gil Allué, C. O. (2015). Silver nanoparticle effects on simple stream food webs and ecosystem processes: Periphyton-grazer system (Doctoral dissertation). EPFL Lausanne, Lausanne, 99 p. , Institutional Repository
Gil-Allué, C., Schirmer, K., Tlili, A., Gessner, M. O., & Behra, R. (2015). Silver nanoparticle effects on stream periphyton during short-term exposures. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(2), 1165-1172. doi:10.1021/es5050166, Institutional Repository
Groh, K. J., Dalkvist, T., Piccapietra, F., Behra, R., Suter, M. J. F., & Schirmer, K. (2015). Critical influence of chloride ions on silver ion-mediated acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles to zebrafish embryos. Nanotoxicology, 9(1), 81-91. doi:10.3109/17435390.2014.893379, Institutional Repository
Groh, K. J., Carvalho, R. N., Chipman, J. K., Denslow, N. D., Halder, M., Murphy, C. A., … Watanabe, K. H. (2015). Development and application of the adverse outcome pathway framework for understanding and predicting chronic toxicity: I. challenges and research needs in ecotoxicology. Chemosphere, 120, 764-777. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.068, Institutional Repository
Groh, K. J., Carvalho, R. N., Chipman, J. K., Denslow, N. D., Halder, M., Murphy, C. A., … Watanabe, K. H. (2015). Development and application of the adverse outcome pathway framework for understanding and predicting chronic toxicity: II. a focus on growth impairment in fish. Chemosphere, 120, 778-792. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.006, Institutional Repository
Li, X., Schirmer, K., Bernard, L., Sigg, L., Pillai, S., & Behra, R. (2015). Silver nanoparticle toxicity and association with the alga Euglena gracilis. Environmental Science: Nano, 2(6), 594-602. doi:10.1039/c5en00093a, Institutional Repository
Linden, K. G., Parker, A. M., Rosario-Ortiz, F., von Gunten, U., Mestankova, H., Canonica, S., … Swaim, P. (2015). Advanced oxidation and transformation of organic contaminants (Report No.: Web Report 4241). Denver: Water Research Foundation. , Institutional Repository
Schindler Wildhaber, Y., Mestankova, H., Schärer, M., Schirmer, K., Salhi, E., & von Gunten, U. (2015). Novel test procedure to evaluate the treatability of wastewater with ozone. Water Research, 75, 324-335. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2015.02.030, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., & Auffan, M. (2015). Nanotoxicology in the environment. Environmental Science: Nano, 2(6), 561-563. doi:10.1039/c5en90023a, Institutional Repository
Stadnicka-Michalak, J., Schirmer, K., & Ashauer, R. (2015). Toxicology across scales: cell population growth in vitro predicts reduced fish growth. Science Advances, 1(7), 1-8. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500302, Institutional Repository
Wunderlin, P., Mestankova, H., Salhi, E., Schindler Wildhaber, Y., Schärer, M., Schirmer, K., & von Gunten, U. (2015). Behandelbarkeit von Abwasser mit Ozon. Testverfahren zur Beurteilung. Aqua & Gas, 95(7-8), 28-38. , Institutional Repository
Yue, Y. (2015). Interaction of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) with rainbow trout gill cell lines (Doctoral dissertation). EPFL Lausanne, Lausanne, 124 p. , Institutional Repository
Yue, Y., Behra, R., Sigg, L., Freire, P. F., Pillai, S., & Schirmer, K. (2015). Toxicity of silver nanoparticles to a fish gill cell line: role of medium composition. Nanotoxicology, 9(1), 54-63. doi:10.3109/17435390.2014.889236, Institutional Repository
Ammann, A. A., Macikova, P., Groh, K. J., Schirmer, K., & Suter, M. J. F. (2014). LC-MS/MS determination of potential endocrine disruptors of cortico signalling in rivers and wastewaters. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 406(29), 7653-7665. doi:10.1007/s00216-014-8206-9, Institutional Repository
Carvalho, R. N., Arukwe, A., Ait-Aissa, S., Bado-Nilles, A., Balzamo, S., Baun, A., … Lettieri, T. (2014). Mixtures of chemical pollutants at European legislation safety concentrations: how safe are they?. Toxicological Sciences, 141(1), 218-233. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfu118, Institutional Repository
Macikova, P., Groh, K. J., Ammann, A. A., Schirmer, K., & Suter, M. J. F. (2014). Endocrine disrupting compounds affecting corticosteroid signaling pathways in Czech and Swiss waters: potential impact on fish. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(21), 12902-12911. doi:10.1021/es502711c, Institutional Repository
Madureira, D. J., Weiss, F. T., Van Midwoud, P., Helbling, D. E., Sturla, S. J., & Schirmer, K. (2014). Systems toxicology approach to understand the kinetics of benzo(a)pyrene uptake, biotransformation, and dna adduct formation in a liver cell model. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 27(3), 443-453. doi:10.1021/tx400446q, Institutional Repository
Mestankova, H., Schirmer, K., Canonica, S., & von Gunten, U. (2014). Development of mutagenicity during degradation of N-nitrosamines by advanced oxidation processes. Water Research, 66, 399-410. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2014.08.012, Institutional Repository
Nyman, A. M., Schirmer, K., & Ashauer, R. (2014). Importance of toxicokinetics for interspecies variation in sensitivity to chemicals. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(10), 5946-5954. doi:10.1021/es5005126, Institutional Repository
Pillai, S., Behra, R., Nestler, H., Suter, M. J. F., Sigg, L., & Schirmer, K. (2014). Linking toxicity and adaptive responses across the transcriptome, proteome, and phenotype of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to silver. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PNAS, 111(9), 3490-3495. doi:10.1073/pnas.1319388111, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K. (2014). Mechanisms of Nanotoxicity. In J. R. Lead & E. Valsami-Jones (Eds.), Frontiers of Nanoscience: Vol. 7. Nanoscience and the Environment (pp. 195-221). doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-099408-6.00006-2, Institutional Repository
Schug, H., Isaacson, C. W., Sigg, L., Ammann, A. A., & Schirmer, K. (2014). Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles and UV radiation on extracellular enzyme activity of intact heterotrophic biofilms. Environmental Science and Technology, 48(19), 11620-11628. doi:10.1021/es502620e, Institutional Repository
Sigg, L., Behra, R., Groh, K., Isaacson, C., Odzak, N., Piccapietra, F., … Schirmer, K. (2014). Chemical aspects of nanoparticle ecotoxicology. Chimia, 68(11), 806-811. doi:10.2533/chimia.2014.806, Institutional Repository
Sovadinová, I., Liedtke, A., & Schirmer, K. (2014). Effects of clofibric acid alone and in combination with 17β-estradiol on mRNA abundance in primary hepatocytes isolated from rainbow trout. Toxicology in Vitro, 28(6), 1106-1116. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2014.05.002, Institutional Repository
Stadnicka-Michalak, J., Tanneberger, K., Schirmer, K., & Ashauer, R. (2014). Measured and modeled toxicokinetics in cultured fish cells and application to in vitro - in vivo toxicity extrapolation. PLoS One, 9(3), e92303 (10 pp.). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092303, Institutional Repository
Sturla, S. J., Boobis, A. R., FitzGerald, R. E., Hoeng, J., Kavlock, R. J., Schirmer, K., … Peitsch, M. C. (2014). Systems toxicology: from basic research to risk assessment. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 27(3), 314-329. doi:10.1021/tx400410s, Institutional Repository
Villeneuve, D., Volz, D. C., Embry, M. R., Ankley, G. T., Belanger, S. E., Léonard, M., … Wehmas, L. (2014). Investigating alternatives to the fish early-life stage test: a strategy for discovering and annotating adverse outcome pathways for early fish development. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 33(1), 158-169. doi:10.1002/etc.2403, Institutional Repository
Brack, W., Govender, S., Schulze, T., Krauss, M., Hu, M., Muz, M., … Spirhanzlova, P. (2013). EDA-EMERGE: an FP7 initial training network to equip the next generation of young scientists with the skills to address the complexity of environmental contamination with emerging pollutants. Environmental Sciences Europe, 25, 18 (7 pp.). doi:10.1186/2190-4715-25-18, Institutional Repository
Dayeh, V. R., Bols, N. C., Tanneberger, K., Schirmer, K., & Lee, L. E. J. (2013). The use of fish-derived cell lines for investigation of environmental contaminants: An update following OECD's fish toxicity testing framework no. 171. In Vol. 56. Current Protocols in Toxicology (pp. 1-20). doi:10.1002/0471140856.tx0105s56, Institutional Repository
Fischer, S., Klüver, N., Burkhardt-Medicke, K., Pietsch, M., Schmidt, A. M., Wellner, P., … Luckenbach, T. (2013). Abcb4 acts as multixenobiotic transporter and active barrier against chemical uptake in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. BMC Biology, 11, 69 (16 pp.). doi:10.1186/1741-7007-11-69, Institutional Repository
Kroll, A., Kühnel, D., & Schirmer, K. (2013). Testing nanomaterial toxicity in unicellular eukaryotic algae and fish cell lines. In D. Armstrong & D. J. Bharali (Eds.), Methods in Molecular Biology: Vol. 1028. Oxidative Stress and Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols (pp. 165-195). doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-475-3_11, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., Behra, R., Sigg, L., & Suter, M. J. F. (2013). Ecotoxicological aspects of nanomaterials in the aquatic environment. In W. Luther & A. Zweck (Eds.), Safety aspects of engineered nanomaterials (pp. 135-156). doi:10.1201/b15261-6, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., Knoebel, M., & Tanneberger, K. (2013). Gill cells – an alternative to whole fish for toxicity tests. Eawag Newsletter [engl. ed.] (2), 1-7. Retrieved from http://newsletter.eawag.ch/e/8bbab41cc9ae86ac/nl/webversion/a6b277eb62e01b2143f25406/en.html, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., Knöbel, M., & Tanneberger, K. (2013). Kiemenzellen statt Fische für Toxizitätstests. Eawag Newsletter [dtsch. Ausg.] (2), 1-7. Retrieved from http://newsletter.eawag.ch/e/8bbab41cc9ae86ac/nl/webversion/a6b277eb62e01b2143f25406/de.html, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., Knöbel, M., & Tanneberger, K. (2013). Tests de toxicité : des cellules branchiales pour remplacer les poissons. Eawag Newsletter [éd. fr.] (2), 1-7. , Institutional Repository
Scholz, S., Sela, E., Blaha, L., Braunbeck, T., Galay-Burgos, M., García-Franco, M., … Winter, M. J. (2013). A European perspective on alternatives to animal testing for environmental hazard identification and risk assessment. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 67(3), 506-530. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2013.10.003, Institutional Repository
Schug, H. (2013). Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on heterotrophic biofilms (Master thesis). 94 p. , Institutional Repository
Tanneberger, K., Knöbel, M., Busser, F. J. M., Sinnige, T. L., Hermens, J. L. M., & Schirmer, K. (2013). Predicting fish acute toxicity using a fish gill cell line-based toxicity assay. Environmental Science and Technology, 47(2), 1110-1119. doi:10.1021/es303505z, Institutional Repository
Hering, J. G., Hoehn, E., Klinke, A., Maurer, M., Peter, A., Reichert, P., … Wehrli, B. (2012). Moving targets, long-lived infrastructure, and increasing needs for integration and adaptation in water management: an illustration from Switzerland. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(1), 112-118. doi:10.1021/es202189s, Institutional Repository
Knöbel, M., Busser, F. J. M., Rico-Rico, Á., Kramer, N. I., Hermens, J. L. M., Hafner, C., … Scholz, S. (2012). Predicting adult fish acute lethality with the zebrafish embryo: relevance of test duration, endpoints, compound properties, and exposure concentration analysis. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(17), 9690-9700. doi:10.1021/es301729q, Institutional Repository
Kühnel, D., Scheffler, K., Wellner, P., Meißner, T., Potthoff, A., Busch, W., … Schirmer, K. (2012). Comparative evaluation of particle properties, formation of reactive oxygen species and genotoxic potential of tungsten carbide based nanoparticles in vitro. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 227-228, 418-426. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.04.070, Institutional Repository
Madureira, D. J. (2012). Time- and concentration-dependent response of a liver cell line to benzo(a)pyrene exposure (Doctoral dissertation). doi:10.3929/ethz-a-007620572, Institutional Repository
Mestankova, H., Schirmer, K., Escher, B. I., von Gunten, U., & Canonica, S. (2012). Removal of the antiviral agent oseltamivir and its biological activity by oxidative processes. Environmental Pollution, 161, 30-35. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2011.09.018, Institutional Repository
Nestler, H., Groh, K. J., Schönenberger, R., Behra, R., Schirmer, K., Eggen, R. I. L., & Suter, M. J. F. (2012). Multiple-endpoint assay provides a detailed mechanistic view of responses to herbicide exposure in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Aquatic Toxicology, 110-111, 214-224. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.01.014, Institutional Repository
Nyman, A. M., Schirmer, K., & Ashauer, R. (2012). Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modelling of survival of Gammarus pulex in multiple pulse exposures to propiconazole: model assumptions, calibration data requirements and predictive power. Ecotoxicology, 21(7), 1828-1840. doi:10.1007/s10646-012-0917-0, Institutional Repository
Stadnicka, J., Schirmer, K., & Ashauer, R. (2012). Predicting concentrations of organic chemicals in fish by using toxicokinetic models. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(6), 3273-3280. doi:10.1021/es2043728, Institutional Repository
Busch, W., Bastian, S., Trahorsch, U., Iwe, M., Kühnel, D., Meißner, T., … Schirmer, K. (2011). Internalisation of engineered nanoparticles into mammalian cells in vitro: influence of cell type and particle properties. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13(1), 293-310. doi:10.1007/s11051-010-0030-3, Institutional Repository
Domingo, G., Schirmer, K., Bracale, M., & Pomati, F. (2011). Illicit Drugs in the Environment: Implication for Ecotoxicology. In S. Castiglioni, E. Zuccato, & R. Fanelli (Eds.), Illicit Drugs in the Environment: Occurrence, Analysis, and Fate Using Mass Spectrometry (pp. 253-274). doi:10.1002/9781118000816.ch14, Institutional Repository
Fischer, S., Loncar, J., Zaja, R., Schnell, S., Schirmer, K., Smital, T., & Luckenbach, T. (2011). Constitutive mRNA expression and protein activity levels of nine ABC efflux transporters in seven permanent cell lines derived from different tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic Toxicology, 101(2), 438-446. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.11.010, Institutional Repository
Kawano, A., Haiduk, C., Schirmer, K., Hanner, R., Lee, L. E. J., Dixon, B., & Bols, N. C. (2011). Development of a rainbow trout intestinal epithelial cell line and its response to lipopolysaccharide. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17(2), e241-e252. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00757.x, Institutional Repository
Mestankova, H., Escher, B., Schirmer, K., von Gunten, U., & Canonica, S. (2011). Evolution of algal toxicity during (photo)oxidative degradation of diuron. Aquatic Toxicology, 101(2), 466-473. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.10.012, Institutional Repository
Michaelson, J. J., Trump, S., Rudzok, S., Grabsch, C., Madureira, D. J., Dautel, F., … Beyer, A. (2011). Transcriptional signatures of regulatory and toxic responses to benzo-[a]-pyrene exposure. BMC Genomics, 12, 502 (14 pp.). doi:10.1186/1471-2164-12-502, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, M., Martienssen, M., & Schirmer, K. (2011). Comment on Schriks, M., Heringa, M.B., van der Kooi, M.M.E., de Voogt, P., van Wezel, A.P., 2010. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality. Water Research 44, 461–476. Water Research, 45, 1512-1514. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.05.058, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K. (2011). Do transformation products pose environmental risks?. Eawag News [engl. ed.], 70, 14-17. , Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K. (2011). Identifying biological effects of organic contaminants in surface- and groundwater. Applied Geochemistry, 26(Suppl.), S337-S339. doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.03.069, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, M., Reinstorf, F., Leschik, S., Musolff, A., Krieg, R., Strauch, G., … Schirmer, K. (2011). Mass fluxes of xenobiotics below cities: challenges in urban hydrogeology. Environmental Earth Sciences, 64(3), 607-617. doi:10.1007/s12665-010-0880-0, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K. (2011). Sind Transformationsprodukte ein Umweltrisiko?. Eawag News [dtsch. Ausg.], 70, 14-17. , Institutional Repository
Volz, D. C., Belanger, S., Embry, M., Padilla, S., Sanderson, H., Schirmer, K., … Villeneuve, D. (2011). Adverse outcome pathways during early fish development: a conceptual framework for identification of chemical screening and prioritization strategies. Toxicological Sciences, 123(2), 349-358. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfr185, Institutional Repository
dos Anjos, N. A., Schulze, T., Brack, W., Vala, A. L., Schirmer, K., & Scholz, S. (2011). Identification and evaluation of cyp1a transcript expression in fish as molecular biomarker for petroleum contamination in tropical fresh water ecosystems. Aquatic Toxicology, 103, 46-52. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.02.004, Institutional Repository
Busch, W., Kühnel, D., Schirmer, K., & Scholz, S. (2010). Tungsten carbide cobalt nanoparticles exert hypoxia-like effects on the gene expression level in human keratinocytes. BMC Genomics, 11, 65 (21 pp.). doi:10.1186/1471-2164-11-65, Institutional Repository
Fischer, S., Pietsch, M., Schirmer, K., & Luckenbach, T. (2010). Identification of multi-drug resistance associated proteins MRP1 (ABCC1) and MRP3 (ABCC3) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Marine Environmental Research, 69(Suppl. 1), S7-S10. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2009.11.003, Institutional Repository
Hildebrand, H., Kühnel, D., Potthoff, A., Mackenzie, K., Springer, A., & Schirmer, K. (2010). Evaluating the cytotoxicity of palladium/magnetite nano-catalysts intended for wastewater treatment. Environmental Pollution, 158(1), 65-73. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2009.08.021, Institutional Repository
Kramer, N. I., Busser, F. J. M., Oosterwijk, M. T. T., Schirmer, K., Escher, B. I., & Hermens, J. L. M. (2010). Development of a partition-controlled dosing system for cell assays. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 23(11), 1806-1814. doi:10.1021/tx1002595, Institutional Repository
Meißner, T., Kühnel, D., Busch, W., Oswald, S., Richter, V., Michaelis, A., … Potthoff, A. (2010). Physical-chemical characterization of tungsten carbide nanoparticles as a basis for toxicological investigations. Nanotoxicology, 4(2), 196-206. doi:10.3109/17435391003605455, Institutional Repository
O'Connor, I. (2010). Sequential exposure to multiple toxicants with different modes of action: measurement and simulation of carry over toxicity (Master thesis). 75 p. , Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., Fischer, B. B., Madureira, D. J., & Pillai, S. (2010). Transcriptomics in ecotoxicology. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 397(3), 917-923. doi:10.1007/s00216-010-3662-3, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, M., Reinstorf, F., Leschik, S., Musolff, A., Krieg, R., Osenbrück, K., … Strauch, G. (2010). Transport and fate of xenobiotics in the urban water cycle: Studies in Halle/Saale and Leipzig (Germany). In D. Fatta-Kassinos, K. Bester, & K. Kümmerer (Eds.), Vol. 16. Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle. Mass Flows, Environmental Processes, Mitigation and Treatment Strategies (pp. 213-226). doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3509-7_12, Institutional Repository
Scholz, S., Schirmer, K., & Altenburger, R. (2010). Pharmaceutical contaminants in urban water cycles: A discussion of novel concepts for environmental risk assessment. In D. Fatta-Kassinos, K. Bester, & K. Kümmerer (Eds.), Environmental Pollution: Vol. 16. Xenobiotics in the Urban Water Cycle. Mass Flows, Environmental Processes, Mitigation and Treatment Strategies (pp. 227-243). doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3509-7_13, Institutional Repository
Tanneberger, K., Otto, C., & Schirmer, K. (2010). Assessment of chemicals: fish cells as an alternative to whole fish. Eawag News [engl. ed.], 68, 25-27. , Institutional Repository
Tanneberger, K., Otto, C., & Schirmer, K. (2010). Chemikalienbeurteilung: Fischzellen statt Fische. Eawag News [dtsch. Ausg.], 68, 25-27. , Institutional Repository
Tanneberger, K., Rico-Rico, A., Kramer, N. I., Busser, F. J. M., Hermens, J. L. M., & Schirmer, K. (2010). Effects of solvents and dosing procedure on chemical toxicity in cell-based in vitro assays. Environmental Science and Technology, 44(12), 4775-4781. doi:10.1021/es100045y, Institutional Repository
Bastian, S., Busch, W., Kühnel, D., Springer, A., Meißner, T., Holke, R., … Schirmer, K. (2009). Toxicity of tungsten carbide and cobalt-doped tungsten carbide nanoparticles in mammalian cells in Vitro. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(4), 530-536. doi:10.1289/ehp.0800121, Institutional Repository
Dayeh, V. R., Schirmer, K., & Bols, N. C. (2009). Ammonia-containing industrial effluents, lethal to rainbow trout, induce vacuolisation and neutral red uptake in the rainbow trout gill cell line, RTgill-W1. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 37(1), 77-87. doi:10.1177/026119290903700111, Institutional Repository
Kramer, N. I., Hermens, J. L. M., & Schirmer, K. (2009). The influence of modes of action and physicochemical properties of chemicals on the correlation between in vitro and acute fish toxicity data. Toxicology in Vitro, 23(7), 1372-1379. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2009.07.029, Institutional Repository
Kühnel, D., Busch, W., Meißner, T., Springer, A., Potthoff, A., Richter, V., … Schirmer, K. (2009). Agglomeration of tungsten carbide nanoparticles in exposure medium does not prevent uptake and toxicity toward a rainbow trout gill cell line. Aquatic Toxicology, 93(2–3), 91-99. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.04.003, Institutional Repository
Lee, L. E. J., Dayeh, V. R., Schirmer, K., & Bols, N. C. (2009). Applications and potential uses of fish gill cell lines: examples with RTgill-W1. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology: Animal, 45(3), 127-134. doi:10.1007/s11626-008-9173-2, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., Hermens, J., Scholz, S., Lee, L., Bols, N., & Hafner, C. (2009). CEllSens. Development of a strategy to predict acute fish lethality using fish cell lines and fish embryos. Summary of project results. Eawag, Dübendorf; IRAS, Utrecht; UFZ, Leipzig; Wilfrid-Laurier University, Waterloo; University of Waterloo; Hydrotox, Freiburg. , Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K. (2009). Les nouveaux défis de l’évaluation des substances chimiques. Eawag News [éd. fr.], 67, 4-7. , Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K. (2009). Neue Herausforderungen in der Chemikalienbewertung. Eawag News [dtsch. Ausg.], 67, 4-7. , Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K. (2009). New challenges in the assessment of chemicals. Eawag News [engl. ed.], 67, 4-7. , Institutional Repository
Becker, H., Sturm, A., Bron, J. E., Schirmer, K., & Bury, N. R. (2008). The A/B domain of the teleost glucocorticoid receptors influences partial nuclear localization in the absence of hormone. Endocrinology, 149(9), 4567-4576. doi:10.1210/en.2007-1683, Institutional Repository
Lee, L. E. J., Dayeh, V. R., Schirmer, K., & Bols, N. C. (2008). Fish cell lines as rapid and inexpensive screening and supplemental tools for whole effluent testing. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 4(3), 372-374. doi:10.1002/ieam.5630040315, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, M., Strauch, G., Schirmer, K., & Reinstorf, F. (2008). Challenges in urban hydrogeology: maintaining urban water quality. In M. G. Trefry (Ed.), IAHS publication. GQ07: securing groundwater quality in urban and industrial environments. Proceedings of the 6th international groundwater quality conference held in Fremantle, Western Australia, 2–7 December 2007 (pp. 1-8). Wallingford, Oxfordshire: International Association of Hydrological Sciences. , Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., Tanneberger, K., Kramer, N. I., Völker, D., Scholz, S., Hafner, C., … Hermens, J. L. M. (2008). Developing a list of reference chemicals for testing alternatives to whole fish toxicity tests. Aquatic Toxicology, 90(2), 128-137. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.08.005, Institutional Repository
Schirmer, K., & Schirmer, M. (2008). Who is chasing whom? A call for a more integrated approach to reduce the load of micro-pollutants in the environment. Water Science and Technology, 57(1), 145-150. doi:10.2166/wst.2008.826, Institutional Repository

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Address

E-Mail: kristin.schirmer@eawag.ch
Phone: +41 58 765 5266
Fax: +41 58 765 5802
Address: Eawag
Überlandstrasse 133
8600 Dübendorf
Office: BU E07

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Expert of

aquatic ecotoxicology, micropollutants, molecular ecotoxicology, nanoparticles, ecotoxicology, cellular ecotoxicology

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