This project aimed gaining knowledge on the occurrence of antifungal azoles in aquatic ecosystems, their fate into aquatic organisms and associated effect(s) in order to improve their environmental risk assessment.
Overall, our results highlight that antifungal azoles are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. In particular, we showed that biota from different trophic levels are actually exposed to these chemicals. Thus, risk quotient calculations revealed risk especially if some of the investigated rivers and streams are used for drinking water production (Creusot et al. 2020). In addition, through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic experiments, we confirmed the ability of aquatic organisms to bioaccumulate and biotransform antifungal azoles that can trigger adverse effect on these organisms (lethality, growth reduction).
Beyond the specific case of antifungal azole, our investigations showed clearly that the retrospective analysis of HRMS/MS data can improve the current knowledge on exposure and the related risks to chemicals of emerging concern, and can be effectively employed for such purposes in the future.