To generate locally appropriate sanitation systems options (objective 1), methodologies from the field of product development will be applied, which are based on attributes to pre-select the locally appropriate options from all the potential sanitation technologies. A generic set of appropriateness attributes will be developed, which can be used for rapid appraisal of any conventional or novel sanitation technology already at the structuring phase of decision-making. This step will be followed by the combination of locally appropriate technologies to form entire systems using the compatibility-based procedure developed at Eawag.
For objective 2, a model-based approach will be used to measure substance flows and to quantify indicators such as nutrients, water, energy, pathogens, and costs for different system options at the scale of an urban settlement. The model will allow capturing the whole range of technologies and system configurations (including distributed systems) and will complement existing models, which are focusing on sewered systems only and thus are not appropriate for typical situations in developing countries.
The methods will be tested and validated in two application cases in Nepal and Ethiopia (objective 3). This will provide information on the potential of conventional and novel sanitation options to fulfill sustainability objectives relevant for the decision-making process. Given the context of expanding urban environments and the focus on novel technologies, uncertainty will be considered and recommendations will be provided how to deal with different types of uncertainties throughout the whole process.