Optimierung der Umweltvorteile von Gründächern durch systemorientierte Experimente und Modellierung
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The effect of modeling choices on updating intensity-duration-frequency curves and stormwater infrastructure designs for climate change
Intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, commonly used in stormwater infrastructure design to represent characteristics of extreme rainfall, are gradually being updated to reflect expected changes in rainfall under climate change. The modeling choices used for updating lead to large uncertainties; however, it is unclear how much these uncertainties affect the design and cost of stormwater systems. This study investigates how the choice of spatial resolution of the regional climate model (RCM) ensemble and the spatial adjustment technique affect climate-corrected IDF curves and resulting stormwater infrastructure designs in 34 US cities for the period 2020 to 2099. In most cities, IDF values are significantly different between three spatial adjustment techniques and two RCM spatial resolutions. These differences have the potential to alter the size of stormwater systems designed using these choices and affect the results of climate impact modeling more broadly. The largest change in the engineering decision results when the design storm is selected from the upper bounds of the uncertainty distribution of the IDF curve, which changes the stormwater pipe design size by five increments in some cases, nearly doubling the cost. State and local agencies can help reduce some of this variability by setting guidelines, such as avoiding the use of the upper bound of the future uncertainty range as a design storm and instead accounting for uncertainty by tracking infrastructure performance over time and preparing for adaptation using a resilience plan.
Using rainfall measures to evaluate hydrologic performance of green infrastructure systems under climate change
As climate change alters precipitation patterns, stakeholders will need to understand how performance of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) could change in response. As an alternative to using on-site monitoring, which may not always feasible, we propose that changes in performance could be tracked using annual rainfall measures (e.g., maximum daily rainfall per year). We estimated performance of GSI in 17 U.S. cities using rainfall measures by establishing linear relationships with specific performance metrics (e.g., frequency of discharge). Prediction accuracy was evaluated in 2 cities for the period 2020 to 2060 by comparing performance predicted from rainfall trends from regional climate models (RCMs) with simulated performance in SWMM using the same RCMs as input. Findings suggest that tracking rainfall measures can provide insight into the hydrologic performance of green infrastructure by predicting the direction of change, as well as, the magnitude within 25% to 50% percent change.