Les subtilités du lac Kivu et du méthane stocké dans ses eaux profondes pourraient facilement occuper un institut de recherche entier.
Les changements climatiques ont également un impact sur les lacs. Nous étudions les relations dans ce système complexe en analysant des données globales et des études de cas locales.
Nous étudions l'impact des centrales hydroélectriques sur les eaux de surface afin de promouvoir une utilisation durable de cette ressource.
Les lacs stockent de grandes quantités de chaleur. A quel point cette chaleur peut-elle être utilisée afin de réduire l'utilisation de combustibles fossiles et d'électricité pour le chauffage et le refroidissement?
De nombreux secrets se cachent encore dans les profondeurs du lac Baïkal. Grâce à de longues années d'observation, certains d'entre eux ont pu être élucidés.
Projet pilote d'observation continue des températures dans les lacs suisses.
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Dynamic modelling provides new insights into development and maintenance of Lake Kivu's density stratification
Lake Kivu is a 485 m deep, Central-East African rift lake with huge amounts of carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in its stably stratified deep waters. In view of future large-scale methane extraction, one-dimensional numerical modelling is an important and computationally inexpensive tool to analyze the evolution of stratification and the content of gases in Lake Kivu. For this purpose, we coupled the physical lake model Simstrat to the biogeochemical library AED2. Compared to an earlier modelling approach, this coupled approach offers several key improvements, most importantly the dynamic evaluation of mixing processes over the whole water column, including a parameterization for double-diffusive transport, and the density-dependent stratification of groundwater inflows. The coupled model successfully reproduces today's near steady-state of Lake Kivu, and we demonstrate that a complete mixing event ∼2000 years ago is compatible with today's physical and biogeochemical state.
This article gives an overview of the heat fluxes between lakes and their environment. The heat budget of most lakes is dominated by heat fluxes at the lake surface, especially shortwave radiation, incoming and outgoing longwave radiation, and the latent heat flux. The seasonality of these fluxes is the most important driver for seasonal mixing processes in lakes. Changes in heat fluxes and the resulting changes in lake thermal structure are the most direct impact of climate change on lakes.
Lake modeling reveals management opportunities for improving water quality downstream of transboundary tropical dams
Water quality in tropical rivers is changing rapidly. The ongoing boom of dam construction for hydropower is one of the drivers for this change. In particular, the stratification in tropical reservoirs induces oxygen deficits in their deep waters and warmer surface water temperatures, which often translate into altered thermal and oxygen regimes of downstream river systems, with cascading consequences for the entire aquatic ecosystem. Operation rules of reservoirs, involving water intakes at different levels, could mitigate the consequences for downstream water quality. However, optimized water management of deep reservoirs relies on predictive models for water quality, but such predictive capability is often lacking for tropical dams. Here we focus on the Zambezi River Basin (southern Africa) to address this gap. Using the one-dimensional General Lake Model, we reproduced the internal dynamics of the transboundary Lake Kariba, the world’s largest artificial lake by volume, created by damming the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. Through this modeling approach, we assessed and quantified the thermal and oxygen alteration in the Zambezi River downstream of the reservoir. Results suggest that these alterations depend directly on Kariba’s stratification dynamics, its water level and the transboundary policies for water withdrawal from the reservoir. Scenario calculations indicate a large potential for mitigating downstream water quality alterations by implementing a hypothetical selective withdrawal technology. However, we show that a different and cooperative management of the existing infrastructure of Kariba Dam has the potential to mitigate most of the actual water quality alterations.
Calamita, E.; Vanzo, D.; Wehrli, B.; Schmid, M. (2021) Lake modeling reveals management opportunities for improving water quality downstream of transboundary tropical dams, Water Resources Research, 57(4), e2020WR027465 (20 pp.), doi:10.1029/2020WR027465, Institutional Repository
The vulnerability of lakes to climate change along an altitudinal gradient
Studies of future 21st century climate warming in lakes along altitudinal gradients have been partially obscured by local atmospheric phenomena unresolved in climate models. Here we forced the physical lake model Simstrat with locally downscaled climate models under three future scenarios to investigate the impact on 29 Swiss lakes, varying in size along an altitudinal gradient. Results from the worst-case scenario project substantial change at the end of the century in duration of ice-cover at mid to high altitude (−2 to −107 days), stratification duration (winter −17 to −84 days, summer −2 to 73 days), while lower and especially mid altitude (present day mean annual air temperature from 9 °C to 3 °C) dimictic lakes risk shift to monomictic regimes (seven out of the eight lakes). Analysis further indicates that for many lakes shifts in mixing regime can be avoided by adhering to the most stringent scenario.
Macroinvertebrate recovery to varying hydropeaking frequency: a small hydropower plant experiment
As the demand for hydroelectricity progresses worldwide, small hydropower operators are increasingly examining the feasibility of using existing infrastructure (e.g., settling basins) in run-of-the-river schemes for intermittent power production. Such flexible production causes short-term discharge fluctuations (hydropeaking) in downstream reaches with potential adverse effects for the sensitive fauna and flora in alpine streams. In an experimental field study on a previously unregulated section of the upper Rhone River (Switzerland), we measured density and composition of macroinvertebrate drift in two habitats (riffle, pool) following a 15-minute hydropeaking wave. The experimental hydropeaking was replicated five times over 14 days with decreasing recovery times between peaks (8, 3, 2 days, and 24 h), and drift measurements were compared with kick samples for the benthic community. Results from the kick sampling showed that benthic macroinvertebrate abundance and composition did not significantly change between the experimental peaks. There were habitat specific reactions in macroinvertebrate drift to hydropeaking, with the pool experiencing more pronounced drift abundances than the riffle. Overall, drift abundance was not significantly correlated with recovery time, but results indicate taxa-specific differences. This research advocates for the importance of completing more in-situ field experiments in order to better understand the ecological impact of flexible power production in small hydropower plants.
Aksamit, C. K.; Carolli, M.; Vanzo, D.; Weber, C.; Schmid, M. (2021) Macroinvertebrate recovery to varying hydropeaking frequency: a small hydropower plant experiment, Frontiers in Environmental Science, 8, 602374 (16 pp.), doi:10.3389/fenvs.2020.602374, Institutional Repository
Combined effects of pumped-storage operation and climate change on thermal structure and water quality
The assessment of ecological impacts of pumped-storage (PS) hydropower plants on the two connected water bodies is usually based on present climatic conditions. However, significant changes in climate must be expected during their long concession periods. We, therefore, investigate the combined effects of climate change and PS operations on water temperature and quality, as well as extent and duration of stratification and ice cover, using a site in Switzerland. For this purpose, a coupled two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model for the two connected water bodies is run with 150 years long synthetic stochastic meteorological forcing for both current and future climate conditions under two PS and two reference scenarios. The results show relevant synergistic and antagonistic effects of PS operations and climate change. For example, hypolimnion temperatures in September are projected to increase by < 0.6 °C in a near-natural reference scenario and by ~ 2.5 °C in an extended PS scenario. Ice cover, which occurs every year under near-natural conditions in the current climate, would almost completely vanish with extended PS operation in the future climate. Conversely, the expected negative impacts of climate change on hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations are partially counteracted by extended PS operations. We, therefore, recommend considering future climate conditions for the environmental impact assessment in the planning of new or the recommissioning of existing PS hydropower plants.
Impacts of using lakes and rivers for extraction and disposal of heat
The extraction and disposal of heat from lakes and rivers is a large yet scarcely exploited source of renewable energy, which can partly replace fossil fuel heating and electrical cooling systems. Its use is expected to increase in the near future, which brings attention to the impacts of discharging thermally altered water into aquatic systems. Our review indicates that thermal discharge affects physical and ecological processes, with impacts recorded at all levels of biological organization. Many in situ studies found local effects of thermal discharge (such as attraction or avoidance of mobile organisms), while impacts at the scale of the whole water body were rarely detected. In complex systems, diffuse impacts of thermal discharge are difficult to disentangle from natural variability or other anthropogenic influences. Discharge of warm water in summer is likely to be most critical, especially in the context of climate change. Under this scenario, water temperatures may reach maxima that negatively affect some species. Given the diversity and complexity of the impacts of thermal pollution on aquatic systems, careful planning and judicious management is required when using lakes and rivers for extraction and disposal of heat. We discuss the drivers that influence the severity of potential impacts of such thermal use, and the options available to avoid or mitigate these impacts (such as adapting the operating conditions).
Gaudard, A.; Weber, C.; Alexander, T. J.; Hunziker, S.; Schmid, M. (2018) Impacts of using lakes and rivers for extraction and disposal of heat, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water, 5(5), e1295 (18 pp.), doi:10.1002/wat2.1295, Institutional Repository