Die Siedlungswasserwirtschaft als System verstehen und in eine nachhaltige Zukunft zu führen charakterisiert die Forschung unserer Abteilung. Neben den traditionellen Fragestellungen zur Siedlungshygiene und zum Gewässerschutz stehen die nachhaltige Nutzung und Bewirtschaftung der Ressourcen im Vordergrund.
Der Nachweis des neuen Coronavirus im Abwasser ist gelungen. Selbst kleine Konzentrationen in Proben, die in einer frühen Phase des Ausbruchs entnommen wurden, lassen sich nachweisen. Jetzt ist ein Team von Forschenden der EPFL...
Der Nachweis des neuen Coronavirus im Abwasser ist gelungen. Selbst kleine Konzentrationen in Proben, die in einer frühen Phase des Ausbruchs entnommen wurden, lassen sich nachweisen. Jetzt ist ein Team von Forschenden der EPFL und der Eawag daran, die Methode zu optimieren. Entstehen soll ein System, das einen allfälligen Wiederanstieg der Fallzahlen früher anzeigen kann als klinische Tests bei infizierten Menschen.
The effect of modeling choices on updating intensity-duration-frequency curves and stormwater infrastructure designs for climate change
Intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, commonly used in stormwater infrastructure design to represent characteristics of extreme rainfall, are gradually being updated to reflect expected changes in rainfall under climate change. The modeling choices used for updating lead to large uncertainties; however, it is unclear how much these uncertainties affect the design and cost of stormwater systems. This study investigates how the choice of spatial resolution of the regional climate model (RCM) ensemble and the spatial adjustment technique affect climate-corrected IDF curves and resulting stormwater infrastructure designs in 34 US cities for the period 2020 to 2099. In most cities, IDF values are significantly different between three spatial adjustment techniques and two RCM spatial resolutions. These differences have the potential to alter the size of stormwater systems designed using these choices and affect the results of climate impact modeling more broadly. The largest change in the engineering decision results when the design storm is selected from the upper bounds of the uncertainty distribution of the IDF curve, which changes the stormwater pipe design size by five increments in some cases, nearly doubling the cost. State and local agencies can help reduce some of this variability by setting guidelines, such as avoiding the use of the upper bound of the future uncertainty range as a design storm and instead accounting for uncertainty by tracking infrastructure performance over time and preparing for adaptation using a resilience plan.
Cook, L. M.; McGinnis, S.; Samaras, C. (2020) The effect of modeling choices on updating intensity-duration-frequency curves and stormwater infrastructure designs for climate change, Climatic Change, 159, 289-308, doi:10.1007/s10584-019-02649-6, Institutional Repository
Rainwater harvesting for urban flood management - an integrated modelling framework
It is well known that rainwater harvesting (RWH) can augment water supply and reduce stormwater pollutant discharges. Due to the lack of continuous 2D modelling of urban flood coverage and its associated damage, the ability of RWH to reduce urban flood risks has not been fully evaluated. Literature suggests that small distributed storage spaces using RWH tanks will reduce flood damage only during small to medium flooding events and therefore cumulative assessment of their benefits is needed. In this study we developed a new integrated modelling framework that implements a semi-continuous simulation approach to investigate flood prevention and water supply benefits of RWH tanks. The framework includes a continuous mass balance simulation model that considers antecedent rainfall conditions and water demand/usage of tanks and predicts the available storage prior to each storm event. To do so, this model couples a rainfall-runoff tank storage model with a detailed stochastic end-use water demand model. The available storage capacity of tanks is then used as a boundary condition for the novel rapid flood simulation model. This flood model was developed by coupling the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to the Cellular-Automata Fast Flood Evaluation (CA-ffé) model to predict the inundation depth caused by surcharges over the capacity of the drainage network. The stage-depth damage curves method was used to calculate time series of flood damage, which are then directly used for flood risk and cost-benefit analysis. The model was tested through a case study in Melbourne, using a recorded rainfall time series of 85 years (after validating the flood model against 1D-2D MIKE-FLOOD). Results showed that extensive implementation of RWH tanks in the study area is economically feasible and can reduce expected annual damage in the catchment by up to approximately 30 percent. Availability of storage space and temporal distribution of rainfall within an event were important factors affecting tank performance for flood reduction.
Urine source separation for global nutrient management
The sewer-based paradigm for wastewater management at the global scale is not successful neither from a humanitarian nor from an environmental perspective. The systems are too expensive for the largest part of the global population. Source separation and resource recovery offer an alternative for sanitation and water pollution control. This chapter illustrates the importance but also the challenges of urine source separation for efficient nutrient removal and recovery.