Department Environmental Social Sciences

How to explain instrument selection in complex policy processes - A comparative network approach of micropollution regulation in the Rhine River Basin

This research project addresses the question of which factors explain governments’ choice of instrument selection. To answer this question, we concentrate on the emerging policy discussion and the formulation processes about micropollution regulation within the Rhine river basin and compare policy options of four riparian countries: Switzerland, Germany, France and the Netherlands.


This project shows that network structures have indeed a crucial impact upon the instruments and instrument mixes. The most comprehensive instrument mix towards micropolluntants’ regulation and water quality control was adopted in countries where a certain degree of collaboration, or brokerage and entrepreneurship is apparent. 

Main applicant

Prof. Dr. Karin Ingold Group leader, Cluster: PEGO Tel. +41 58 765 5676 Send Mail

Project team

Florence Metz, University of Berne

H. Bresser, UTwente

M. Lubeli, UDavis

F. Varone, UGeneva

Related Publications

Metz, F.; Ingold, K. (2014) Sustainable wastewater management: is it possible to regulate micropollution in the future by learning from the Past? A policy analysis, Sustainability, 6(4), 1992-2012, doi:10.3390/su6041992, Institutional Repository