Department Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development

Management of Excreta, Wastewater and Sludge

2.7 billion people worldwide currently rely on onsite sanitation technologies. The development of innovative solutions for collection, transport, treatment, and resource recovery of the resulting faecal sludge (FS) is essential to fulfill the sanitation needs of urban areas in low- and middle-income countries.

Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) is a relatively new and rapidly growing field. In addition to innovation, there is a great need for practical and reliable approaches that allow engineers to select and design treatment technologies. Sandec’s research addresses these gaps in sound engineering design approaches for FSM.


Dr. Linda StrandeTel. +41 58 765 5553Send Mail


Our publications are all available <<here>>

Faecal Sludge Management Book


Online course “Introduction to FSM”

Materials used in the course << here>>.



The SEEK project aims to increase revenue potential by processing sludge together with other urban waste streams into fuel pellets and electricity through gasification.


Sustainable urban water and wastewater management applied and implemented in the modular NEST building.


Sandec is working in collaboration with the Hanoi University of Civil Engineering to evaluate the feasibility of treating faecal sludge through anaerobic digestion


Working towards improved faecal sludge dewatering and resource recovery through pilot-scale research on locally available conditioners and carbonization

Global - SFDs

The Shit-Flow-Diagram (SFD) is a figure designed to present complex information in easy to understand fashion, to convey the current state of sanitation on a city-wide scale.


Developing evidence-based design and operating guidelines based on in-depth monitoring of existing faecal sludge treatment plants


Dr. Linda StrandeTel. +41 58 765 5553Send Mail
Barbara Jeanne WardPhD StudentTel. +41 58 765 5290Send Mail
Nienke AndriessenProject OfficerTel. +41 58 765 5082Send Mail
Stanley SamTel. +41 58 765 5710Send Mail
Kapanda KapandaTel. +41 58 765 5286Send Mail
Michael VogelTel. +41 58 765 5944Send Mail