Department Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development

Evaluation and Monitoring of Faecal Sludge Treatment Plants (eFSTP) in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

Developing evidence-based design and operating guidelines based on in-depth monitoring of existing faecal sludge treatment plants.

Eawag/Sandec is partnering with DELVIC Sanitation Initiatives and ENPHO to carry out the first in-depth systematic assessment of faecal sludge treatment plants (FSTPs) in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the main project goal is to make evidence-based recommendations and guidelines to optimise the design, operation, maintenance and management of FSTPs. This will provide sound empirical evidence for future FSM investments and improve the provision of citywide treatment services for faecal sludge in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The planned two-year research project will have the following outputs:

  • Recommendations for design and operation of FSTPs that include drying beds, in addition to other treatment technologies, based on actual operating condition
  • Methodology for long-term monitoring of FSTP treatment performance
  • A comparative study of FSTP operation between different climatic zones and geographic locations
  • Recommendations for sustainable FSTP management
  • Fincancial comparison of capital and operating costs of the studied FSTPs

The eFSTP scoping study report is now available on It summarizes the results from the scoping study, which goal was to identify current gaps, evaluate the actual operating condition of existing FSTPs in comparison to design assumptions, and to lay the foundation for what next steps should be taken.