Wir untersuchen sowohl einzelne Prozesse in aquatischen Systemen als auch ganze Systeme natürlicher Gewässer. Neben der Grundlagenforschung und der interdisziplinären Systemanalyse stehen anwendungsnahe Projekte besonders im Fokus.
Ob ein See einmal mit zu vielen Nährstoffen belastet war, spiegelt sich auch Jahrzehnte später in der Gemeinschaft von Bakterien, welche im Sediment von diesen Nährstoffen leben. Doch wie die Mikroben im Sediment zusammenarbeiten,...
Ob ein See einmal mit zu vielen Nährstoffen belastet war, spiegelt sich auch Jahrzehnte später in der Gemeinschaft von Bakterien, welche im Sediment von diesen Nährstoffen leben. Doch wie die Mikroben im Sediment zusammenarbeiten, ist noch erstaunlich wenig erforscht.
Does rapid glacial recession affect feeding habits of alpine stream insects?
Glacial retreat, accompanied by shifts in riparian vegetation and glacier meltwater inputs, alters the energy supply and trophic structure of alpine stream food webs. Our goal in this study was to enhance understanding of dietary niches of macroinvertebrates inhabiting different alpine streams with contrasting glacial and non‐glacial (groundwater, precipitation, snowmelt) water inputs in conjunction with seasonal and habitat‐specific variation in basal resource availability. We measured a range of stream physico‐chemical attributes as well as carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) of macroinvertebrates and primary food sources at seven sites across seasons within a Swiss glaciated catchment (Val Roseg) undergoing rapid glacial retreat (1–2 km between 1997 and 2014). Sampling sites corresponded to streams used in a previous (1997/1998) study within the same alpine catchment. Physico‐chemical attributes showed wide variation in environmental conditions across streams and seasons. Significant correlation among physico‐chemical proxies of glacier meltwater (phosphate‐P, total inorganic carbon, conductivity, turbidity) and macroinvertebrate δ13C, δ15N, and size‐corrected standard ellipse area (a proxy for feeding niche width) values showed that the extent of glacial water input shapes the energy base among alpine streams. Feeding niche differences among common alpine stream insect taxa (Chironomidae, Baetidae, Heptageniidae) were not significant, indicating that these organisms probably are plastic in feeding behaviour, opportunistically relying on food resources available in a particular stream and season. Seasonal trends in macroinvertebrate δ13C largely followed patterns in periphyton δ13C values, indicating that autochthonous resources were the main consumer energy source within the stream network, as shown previously. The overall range in macroinvertebrate δ13C (−33.5 to −18.4‰) and δ15N (−6.9 to 6.7‰) values also corresponded to values measured in the previous study, suggesting that macroinvertebrates altered diets in line with changes in environmental conditions and food resources during a period of rapid glacial retreat. Our results suggest that environmental changes brought on by rapid glacial retreat have not yet caused a profound change in the trophic structure within these fluvial networks.
An automated calibration framework and open source tools for 3D lake hydrodynamic models
Understanding lake dynamics is crucial to provide scientifically credible information for ecosystem management. In this context, three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are a key information source to assess critical but often subtle changes in lake dynamics occurring at all spatio-temporal scales. However, those models require time-consuming calibrations, often carried out by trial-and-error. Through a new coupling of open source software, we present here a flexible and computationally inexpensive automated calibration framework. The method, tailored to the calibration data available to the user, aims at (i) reducing the time spent on calibration, and (ii) making three-dimensional lake modelling accessible to a broader range of users. It is demonstrated for two different lakes (Lake Geneva and Greifensee) with an extensive multi-variable observational dataset. Models mean absolute errors are reduced by up to ~50% over the baseline. Guidelines on heat and momentum transfer parameters are given with their dependence on the observational setup.
Baracchini, T.; Hummel, S.; Verlaan, M.; Cimatoribus, A.; Wüest, A.; Bouffard, D. (2020) An automated calibration framework and open source tools for 3D lake hydrodynamic models, Environmental Modelling and Software, 134, 104787 (16 pp.), doi:10.1016/j.envsoft.2020.104787, Institutional Repository