Wir untersuchen sowohl einzelne Prozesse in aquatischen Systemen als auch ganze Systeme natürlicher Gewässer. Neben der Grundlagenforschung und der interdisziplinären Systemanalyse stehen anwendungsnahe Projekte besonders im Fokus.
Am 15. September findet nach zwei Jahren Corona-Pause erstmals wieder ein Eawag Infotag statt, der sich neuen Technologien zur Überwachung von Oberflächengewässern widmen wird. Der Physiker Damien Bouffard, Leiter der Gruppe...
Am 15. September findet nach zwei Jahren Corona-Pause erstmals wieder ein Eawag Infotag statt, der sich neuen Technologien zur Überwachung von Oberflächengewässern widmen wird. Der Physiker Damien Bouffard, Leiter der Gruppe Aquatische Physik an der Eawag, hat ihn mitkonzipiert und erläutert im Interview, welche neuen Möglichkeiten und Herausforderungen diese Technologien mit sich bringen.
Paul-Limoges, E., Revill, A., Maier, R., Buchmann, N., & Damm, A. (2022). Insights for the partitioning of ecosystem evaporation and transpiration in short-statured croplands. Journal of Geophysical Research G: Biogeosciences, 127(7), e2021JG006760 (19 pp.). doi:10.1029/2021JG006760, Institutional Repository
Reducing water losses in agriculture needs a solid understanding of when evaporation (E) losses occur and how much water is used through crop transpiration (T). Partitioning ecosystem T is however challenging, and even more so when it comes to short-statured crops, where many standard methods lead to inaccurate measurements. In this study, we combined biometeorological measurements with a Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Crop (SPA-Crop) model to estimate T and E at a Swiss cropland over two crop seasons with winter cereals. We compared our results with two data-driven approaches: The Transpiration Estimation Algorithm (TEA) and the underlying Water Use Efficiency (uWUE). Despite large differences in the productivity of both years, the T to evapotranspiration (ET) ratio had relatively similar seasonal and diurnal dynamics, and averaged to 0.72 and 0.73. Our measurements combined with a SPA-Crop model provided T estimates similar to the TEA method, while the uWUE method produced systematically lower T even when the soil and leaves were dry. T was strongly related to the leaf area index, but additionally varied due to climatic conditions. The most important climatic drivers controlling T were found to be the photosynthetic photon flux density (R2 = 0.84 and 0.87), and vapor pressure deficit (R2 = 0.86 and 0.70). Our results suggest that site-specific studies can help establish T/ET ratios, as well as identify dominant climatic drivers, which could then be used to partition T from reliable ET measurements. Moreover, our results suggest that the TEA method is a suitable tool for ET partitioning in short-statured croplands.
Muvundja, F. A., Walumona, J. R., Dusabe, M. C., Alunga, G. L., Kankonda, A. B., Albrecht, C., … Wüest, A. (2022). The land–water–energy nexus of Ruzizi River Dams (Lake Kivu Outflow, African Great Lakes Region): status, challenges, and perspectives. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10, 892591 (14 pp.). doi:10.3389/fenvs.2022.892591, Institutional Repository
Hydroelectric power (HP) represents the main source of electricity in Africa, including the Democratic Republic of Congo. The demand for new dam construction is high, and major projects are currently progressing through planning and implementation stages. New HP dams should comply with both past and emerging environmental requirements. River systems need water to maintain hydraulic and ecological functions. Flow regime disturbance can prevent rivers from providing their ecosystem services and disrupt riparian communities. Most dammed rivers in Africa are understudied, however, in terms of their environmental flow requirements. This study analysed the hydrological regime and water quality of the Ruzizi River. The research investigated conditions of minimum water flow and hydropeaking at the Ruzizi I HP dam in terms of land management constraints and ecological impacts. According to Gumbel’s hydrological model, a discharge of ∼130 m3/s showed the longest return period (12 years) among the most recurrent flows. By contrast, the maximum recorded discharge of 143 m3/s showed a return time of 76 years. Any discharge between 46 and 120 m3/s could occur at any time within three years. The discharge–hydropower production relationship for the power plant provided a possible minimum environmental flow of 28 m3/s (i.e., 25%). Drinking water quality was assessed according to WHO water quality index (WQI) standards. Turbidity (i.e., total suspended solids) upstream and downstream of dams correlated strongly with rainfall (r = 0.8; n = 12) and land use. WQI values observed in excess of WHO drinking water standards indicate that the Ruzizi River is currently unsuitable for drinking water purposes.