Wir untersuchen sowohl einzelne Prozesse in aquatischen Systemen als auch ganze Systeme natürlicher Gewässer. Neben der Grundlagenforschung und der interdisziplinären Systemanalyse stehen anwendungsnahe Projekte besonders im Fokus.
Model-based data analysis of the effect of winter mixing on primary production in a lake under reoligotrophication
Nutrient loading, in combination with climate change are important drivers of primary productivity in lakes. Understanding and forecasting future changes in primary production (PP) in response to local and global forcing are major challenges for developing sustainable lake management. The objective of this study is to understand and characterize the mechanisms underlying the large differences in observed PP rates and nutrient concentrations between two consecutive years (2012 and 2013) in Lake Geneva, Switzerland. For this purpose, we apply a one-dimensional (1D) physical-biogeochemical model system. The Framework of Aquatic Biogeochemical models (FABM) interface is used to couple the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) with a biogeochemical model, the Ecological Regional Ocean Model (ERGOM). We calibrated GOTM, by adjusting physical parameters, with the observed temperature profiles. A model calibration method is implemented to minimize model-data misfits and to optimize the biological parameters related to phytoplankton growth dynamics. According to our results, the simulated surface mixed layer depth is deeper and heat loss from the lake and turbulent kinetic energy in the water column are much higher in winter 2012 than that in 2013, pointing to a cooling-driven, deep mixing in the lake in 2012. We found significant differences in internal phosphorus loads in the epilimnion between the two years, with estimates for 2012 being higher than those for 2013. ERGOM predicts weak nutrient limitation on phytoplankton and higher growth rates in 2012. Apparently, the deep mixing event led to high turnover of nutrients (particularly dissolved inorganic phosphate) to the productive surface layers, and a massive algal bloom developed later in the productive season. In contrary, the turnover of nutrients in 2013 was weak and consequently the PP was low. Our findings demonstrate the utility of a coupled physical–biological model framework for the investigation of the meteorological and physical controls of PP dynamics in aquatic systems.
Krishna, S.; Ulloa, H. N.; Kerimoglu, O.; Minaudo, C.; Anneville, O.; Wüest, A. (2021) Model-based data analysis of the effect of winter mixing on primary production in a lake under reoligotrophication, Ecological Modelling, 440, 109401 (14 pp.), doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2020.109401, Institutional Repository
Hypolimnetic oxygen depletion rates in deep lakes: effects of trophic state and organic matter accumulation
This study investigated the consumption of oxygen (O2) in 11 European lakes ranging from 48 m to 372 m deep. In lakes less than ~ 100 m deep, the main pathways for O2 consumption were organic matter (OM) mineralization at the sediment surface and oxidation of reduced compounds diffusing up from the sediment. In deeper lakes, mineralization of OM transported through the water column to the sediment represented a greater proportion of O2 consumption. This process predominated in the most productive lakes but declined with decreasing total phosphorous (TP) concentrations and hence primary production, when TP concentrations fell below a threshold value of ~ 10 mg P m−3. Oxygen uptake by the sediment and the flux of reduced compounds from the sediment in these deep lakes were 7.9–10.6 and 0.6–3.6 mmol m−2 d−1, respectively. These parameters did not depend on the lake's trophic state but did depend on sedimentation rates for the primarily allochthonous or already degraded OM. These results indicate that in lakes deeper than ~ 100 m, mineralization of autochthonous OM is mostly complete by the time of sedimentary burial. This explains why hypolimnetic O2 concentrations improve more rapidly following TP load reduction in deeper lakes relative to shallower lakes, where larger sediment-based O2 consumption by settled OM and release of reduced substances may inhibit the restoration of hypolimnetic O2 concentrations.
Steinsberger, T.; Schwefel, R.; Wüest, A.; Müller, B. (2020) Hypolimnetic oxygen depletion rates in deep lakes: effects of trophic state and organic matter accumulation, Limnology and Oceanography, doi:10.1002/lno.11578, Institutional Repository