Wir untersuchen sowohl einzelne Prozesse in aquatischen Systemen als auch ganze Systeme natürlicher Gewässer. Neben der Grundlagenforschung und der interdisziplinären Systemanalyse stehen anwendungsnahe Projekte besonders im Fokus.
Ahmed, K. R., Paul-Limoges, E., Rascher, U., Hanus, J., Miglietta, F., Colombo, R., … Damm, A. (2023). Empirical insights on the use of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate short-term changes in crop transpiration under controlled water limitation. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 203, 71-85. doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2023.07.016, Institutional Repository
Knowledge of actual crop transpiration (T) is important for advanced crop management but challenging to obtain due to the large spatial and temporal variation of T. Remote sensing offers various possibilities to assess T dynamics, while particularly sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has been demonstrated as a sensitive empirical proxy for T. Despite this success, the advancement of the mechanistic understanding of how SIF relates to T dynamics is key for the future development and implementation of robust and reliable SIF-based T products. This study aims to contribute insights by experimentally assessing the sensitivity of several SIF-based T estimation strategies for evolving soil water limitation. We investigated extensive in situ and airborne data acquired during a water limitation experiment in a maize canopy in northern Italy. We evaluated five empirical strategies to integrate SIF in a T modelling framework based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) and the Ball-Berry-Leuning (BBL) concepts. Our results indicate that replacing model parameters sensitive to canopy conductance with SIF results in the best agreement between modelled and measured T under evolving water limitation. Our study contributes expanding existing knowledge with empirical insights on the sensitivity of SIF based T approaches under increasing soil water limitation at short time scales.
Antonetti, M., Hoppler, L., Tonolla, D., Vanzo, D., Schmid, M., & Doering, M. (2023). Integrating two‐dimensional water temperature simulations into a fish habitat model to improve hydro‐ and thermopeaking impact assessment. River Research and Applications, 39(3), 501-521. doi:10.1002/rra.4043, Institutional Repository
Storage hydropower plants, which are an important component of energy production in Switzerland, can lead to hydro- and thermopeaking, affecting river habitats and organisms. In this study, we developed an approach for integrating water temperature simulations into a habitat model to assess the impact of both hydro- and thermopeaking on the availability of suitable fish habitats. We focused on the habitat requirements of juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta) in a semi-natural braided floodplain along the Moesa River (Southern Switzerland) in early summer. First, we defined different scenarios (with and without hydropeaking) based on the local hydrological and meteorological conditions. Second, we used a two-dimensional depth-averaged hydro- and thermodynamic model to simulate the spatial distributions of water depth, flow velocity, and water temperature. Third, we applied generalized preference curves for juvenile brown trout to identify hydraulically suitable habitats, and developed a new index to assess the availability of thermally suitable habitats. Finally, we quantified the extent to which hydraulically and thermally suitable habitats overlap in space and time. During both base and peak flow phases, most of the hydraulically and thermally suitable habitats are located in the side channels. High flow conditions combined with strong cold-thermopeaking lead to a higher thermal heterogeneity. However, disconnected habitats originate in the dewatering zone, increasing the risk of stranding as well as thermal stress. By helping to better understand the effects of thermopeaking on the availability of fish habitats, our approach could contribute to the design and evaluation of ecological restoration in hydropeaking rivers.
Arias-Real, R., Hurtado, P., Gionchetta, G., & Gutiérrez-Cánovas, C. (2023). Drying shapes aquatic fungal community assembly by reducing functional diversity. Diversity, 15(2), 289 (14 pp.). doi:10.3390/d15020289, Institutional Repository
Aquatic fungi are highly diverse organisms that play a critical role in global biogeochemical cycles. Yet it remains unclear which assembly processes determine their co-occurrence and assembly patterns over gradients of drying intensity, which is a common stressor in fluvial networks. Although aquatic fungi possess drying-specific adaptations, little is known about how functional similarity influences co-occurrence probability and which functional traits are sorted by drying. Using field data from 15 streams, we investigated how co-occurrence patterns and assembly processes responded to drying intensity. To do so, we determined fungal co-occurrence patterns, functional traits that best explain species co-occurrence likelihood, and community assembly mechanisms explaining changes in functional diversity over the drying gradient. Our results identified 24 species pairs with positive co-occurrence probabilities and 16 species pairs with negative associations. The co-occurrence probability was correlated with species differences in conidia shape and fungal endophytic capacity. Functional diversity reduction over the drying gradient is generally associated with non-random abiotic filtering. However, the assembly processes changed over the drying gradient, with random assembly prevailing at low drying intensity and abiotic filtering gaining more importance as drying intensifies. Collectively, our results can help anticipate the impacts of global change on fungal communities and ecosystem functioning.