Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested technologies into once concise document, the reader is provided with a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions.
Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation Planning (CLUES) A set of planning guidelines based on a multi-sector and multi-actor approach accounting for water supply, sanitation, solid waste management and storm drainage in urban areas, and emphasizing the participation of all stakeholders from an early stage in the planning process.
Governance arrangements for the scaling up of small-scale wastewater treatment and reuse systems - lessons from India
Environmental pollution and increasing water scarcity are key features of the urban landscape of India today. The extension of centralized sewerage networks cannot keep up with city growth, and alternative sanitation systems are needed for citywide inclusive sanitation (CWIS). The government of India mandated larger buildings to be equipped with small-scale wastewater treatment plants (SSTP). This resulted in the emergence of a large number of technology and service providers, and in the implementation of thousands of private SSTPs. However, this quick scaling up was not accompanied by the development of appropriate governance arrangements. As a result, a significant proportion of SSTPs underperform and do not meet the effluent standards. Through a systematic analysis of governance arrangements around SSTPs, this contribution analyses the scaling up process of small-scale wastewater management and reuse at building level in India, in particular in the state of Karnataka and the city of Bengaluru. This paper identifies the gaps in this multi-level, polycentric governance framework and investigates which arrangements are needed to enable the performance of SSTPs on the ground and to create the necessary synergies between the relevant governmental agencies, the private sector and civil society. The scaling up of SSTPs in India mainly followed a market governance approach within a governance environment that is traditionally very hierarchical. The authors argue that hybrid governance arrangements, blending hierarchical, market and network governance are needed to foster market regulation and stakeholder coordination, and increase the performance of the sector. They conclude that an efficient governance of SSS requires the creation of dedicated SSS units at state and city level, and the development of an online platform collating all databases, streamlining and supporting processes from establishment to monitoring, and allowing meaningful collaboration between stakeholders. Through the case study of India, this paper contributes to understand the governance arrangements necessary for the successful scaling up of decentralized sanitation systems, and how to fulfill the potential of alternative solutions for sustainable urban water management. It contributes to governance studies by substantiating the concept of hybrid governance approach and proposing concrete measures to make it work for such distributed systems.
Reymond, P.; Chandragiri, R.; Ulrich, L. (2020) Governance arrangements for the scaling up of small-scale wastewater treatment and reuse systems - lessons from India, Frontiers in Environmental Science, 8, 72 (16 pp.), doi:10.3389/fenvs.2020.00072, Institutional Repository
Santiago software supports sustainable sanitation planningThis short article published in The Source - the magazine of the International Water Association (IWA), introduces an approach for the identification of locally appropriate sanitation system options as an input into the strategic planning process (e.g. CLUES, Sanitation21 or CSP). The approach is based on a software called SANTIAGO (SANitation sysTem Alternative GeneratOr) and intended to assist engineers considering the broad range of conventional and novel sanitation technology and system options. Spuhler, D. and Scheidegger, A. (2019).[118KB]
Assessing the Costs of on-Site Sanitation FacilitiesThis report compares toilet costs in Africa and Asia and provides answers on why on-site sanitation facilities are so much more expensive in Sub-Saharan Africa. L. Ulrich, P. Salian, C. Saul, St. Jüstrich, Ch. Lüthi (2016)[2.12MB]
A Collection of Contemporary Toilet Designs.EOOS and WEDC (2014). This book bublished by WEDC in collaboration with Sandec and EOOS provides insight into new and innovative ways of addressing global sanitation issues at the user interface level. This collection is the result of the findings of the Eawag team of engineers and social scientists working on the Blue Diversion Toilet project together with EOOS. It covers a wide range of contemporary designs along with a valuable list of website links where additional information about each design can be sought.[4.81MB]
Household-Centred Environmental Sanitation (HCES)
N.B. The HCES have been revised, and are now called CLUES. This section contains publications on HCES, more recent publications on this topic can be found in CLUES.
Local solutions for sanitation.C. Lüthi, A. Morel, M. Sherpa, E. Tilley, EM. Heim (2011). Article on HCES Guidelines in NCCR North-South Evidence for Policy [689KB]