Department Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development

Geogenic contamination

Water resource quality (WRQ)

For more publications about WRQ, please consult the WRQ website.

Water and sanitation in developing countries: geochemical aspects of quality and treatment
R. B. Johnston, M. Berg, C. A. Johnson, E. Tilley, J.G. Hering (2011).  Elements, 7(3)


The socio-economics of arsenic removal
R. B. Johnston, S. Hanchett, M. H. Khan (2010) . Nature Geoscience, 3(1), 2-3.


Subsurface iron and arsenic removal: low-cost technology for community-based water supply in Bangladesh
D. Van Halem, S. G. J. Heijman, R. Johnston, S. M. I. Huq, S. K. Ghosh, J. Q. J. C. Verberk, G. Amy, J. C. Van Dijk, J. C. (2010) . Water Science and Technology, 62(11), 2702-2709.


Solar Oxidation and Removal of Arsenic (SORAS)

  • SORAS - a simple arsenic removal process M. Wegelin, D. Gechter et al. (1999). SORAS (Solar Oxidation and Removal of Arsenic in Drinking Water) is a simple water treatment method that uses sunlight and plastic bottles to reduce arsenic levels in drinking water. The process is based on photochemical oxidation of As(III) followed by precipitation or filtration of As(V) adsorbed on Fe(III)oxides. Groundwater polluted by arsenic often contains also iron as Fe(II) or Fe(III) used for the removal of arsenic. In such situations, SORAS reduces arsenic contents to approx. 50 – 80 %. The water treatment method is used at household level to treat small quantities of drinking water at virtually no cost.

Microbial contamination

Gravity-Driven Membrane (GDM) filter

For more publications about GDM technology, please consult the GDM Website.

Mechanisms of membrane fouling during ultra-low pressure ultrafiltration
M. Peter-Varbanets, J. Margot, J. Traber, W. Pronk (2011) . Journal of Membrane Science, 377(1-2), 42-53.


Stabilization of flux during dead-end ultra-low pressure ultrafiltration
M. Peter-Varbanets, F. Hammes, M. Vital, W. Pronk (2010) . Water Research, 44(12), 3607-3616.


Decentralized systems for potable water and the potential of membrane technology
M. Peter-Varbanets, C. Zurbrugg, C. Swartz, W. Pronk (2009). Water Research, 43(2), 245-265.

Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)

For more publications about the SODIS method, please consult the SODIS Website.

Monitoring and surveillance

Bangladesh National Drinking Water Quality Survey of 2009
UNICEF/BBS (2011). UNICEF/Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Dhaka, Bangladesh


Arsenic mitigation in Bangladesh: National screening data and case studies in three upazilas
R. Johnston, M. Sarker (2007) . Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 42(12), 1889-1896.