A. Landscape study
Available information on SSS systems in South Asia, private-sector actors, related policies, and findings from previous research were compiled in a desk-based landscape study.
B. Basic assessment of existing systems
To understand the factors that influence sustainability at the SSS system level, a basic assessment of systems was carried out. Design and implementation, O&M, management, socio-cultural and financial aspects were investigated in this part of the study. An exhaustive evaluation questionnaire and an inspection checklist were used to collect information on 279 SSTPs in India and 30 in Nepal. Study sites were pre-selected based on landscape study findings and interviews conducted with managers, operators and beneficiaries (users).
C. In-depth performance analysis
To gain an understanding of treatment performance and make comparisons with standards, a sampling campaign was carried out. It assessed the technical performance of 40 selected units (35 in India and 5 in Nepal), covering a representative range of treatment capacities, technologies and applications. Composite sampling of inlets and outlets over 24 hours (complemented with grab samples every 6 hours) was done three times at each site, and key water quality parameters were analysed.
Klinger, M.; Ulrich, L.; Ramprasad, C.; Wolf, A.T.; Reynaud, N.; Narayan, A.S.; Siemsen, P.; Lüthi, C.; Philip, L. (2020) Technology, Implementation and Operation of Small-Scale Sanitation in India – Performance Analysis and Policy Recommendations. 4S Project Report Vol. I