Department Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development

Faecal Sludge Management: Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation

This book compiles the current state of knowledge of the rapidly evolving FSM sector, and presents an integrated approach that includes technology, management and planning. Available as a free download in English, Spanish, and French. You can access the book by clicking <<here>>.

General FSM

Faecal Sludge Treatment Technologies

Resource Recovery from Treatment

Coming soon!

  • Optimal operating conditions for faecal sludge pyrolysis.
    Gold, M., Bleuler, M., Cunningham, M., Arnheiter, R., Schönborn, A., Niwagaba, C., Strande, L.
  • To char or not to char? Review of technologies to produce solid fuels for resource recovery from faecal sludge.
    Andriessen, N., Ward, B.J., Strande, L.

Market Driven Approach to Treatment Products

Faecal sludge Quantities and Qualities (Q&Q)

Coming soon!

  • Quantities and Qualities (Q&Q) of Faecal Sludge for Planning and Management.
    Strande, L., Englund, M., Carbajal, J.P.
    In preparation as a chapter of "Methods for Faecal Sludge Analyses" (IWA publication)
    Velkushanova, K., Strande, L., Ronteltap, M., Koottatep, T., Brdjanovic. D., Buckley, C. (book editors)
  • Modeling of faecal sludge quantities and qualities for resource efficient and accurate design of management and treatment solutions.
    Englund, M., Carbajal, J.P., Bassan, M., Ferré, A., Vu, T.H.A., Nguyen, V.A., Strande, L.

Laboratory methods

Sustainable Implementation/Capacity development

Education Material

Faecal Sludge Management Workshop

FSM Highlights and Exercises

SFD (Shit Flow Diagram) for seven cities in Africa and Asia

Eawag/Sandec FSM Publications PRE-2010

Journals and Conference papers

Design considerations and constraints in applying on-farm wastewater treatment for urban agriculture. 4th SWITCH Scientific Meeting. IWMI, Eawag-Sandec.
P. Reymond, O. Cofie, D. Koné (2009). Keywords: Wastewater treatment, Urban agriculture, Participatory action research, Water quality, Ghana

Influence of sand layer depth and percolate impounding regime on nitrogen transformation in vertical-flow constructed wetlands treating faecal sludge
A. Panuvatvanich, T. Koottatep, D. Kone (2009) . Keywords: Denitrification, Faecal sludge treatment, Impounding regime, Nitrification, Vertical-flow constructed wetlands

Hydraulic behaviour of vertical-flow constructed wetland under different operating conditions. A. Panuvatvanich, T. Koottatep, D. Kone (2009). Keywords: Constructed wetland, Drainage pattern, Feeding pattern, Hydraulic behaviour, Tracer study

Improving Environmental Sanitation, Health, and Well-Being: A Conceptual Framework for Integral Interventions. H. Nguyen-Viet, J. Zinsstag, R. Schertenleib, C. Zurbrügg, B. Obrist (2009). Keywords: Integrated approach, Health, Environmental sanitation, MFA, QMRA, Social sciences

Co-composting of faecal sludge and organic solid waste for agriculture: Process dynamics. O. Cofie, D. Kone, S. Rothenberger, D. Moser (2009). Keywords: Excreta, Feacal sludge, Solid waste, Co-composting, Compost quality, Nutrients

Recovery of Biosolids from Constructed Wetlands Used for Faecal Sludge Dewatering in Tropical Regions. I.M. Kengne, A. Akoa, D. Kone (2009). Keywords: Faecal sludge, Dewatering, Biosolids, Recovery, Constructed wetlands

Vertical-flow constructed wetlands as sustainable sanitation approach for faecal sludge dewatering in developing countries. I.M. Kengne, P.H. Dodane, A. Akoa, D. Kone (2009). Keywords: Echinochloa pyramidalis, Biosolids, Developing countries, Faecal sludge, Sustainable approach, Vertical-flow constructed wetlands

An approach to optimise nutrient management in environmental sanitation systems despite limited data. A. Montangero, H. Belevi (2008). Keywords: Environmental sanitation, Developing countries, Material flow analysis, Nutrient recovery, Phosphorus, Data scarcity, Data uncertainty, Plausibility assessment

Effects of faecal sludge application on growth characteristics and chemical composition of Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.) Hitch. and Chase and Cyperus papyrus L. I.M. Kengne, A. Akoa, E.K. Soh, V. Tsama, M.M. Ngoutane, P.H. Dodane, D. Kone (2008). Keywords: Antelope grass, Constructed wetlands, Cyperus papyrus, Echinochloa pyramidalis, Faecal sludge, Growth characteristics, Nutrient contents, Planted drying beds, Sludge dewatering beds, Vertical-flow constructed wetlands

Optimising water and phosphorus management in the urban environmental sanitation system of Hanoi, Vietnam. A. Montangero, L.N. Cau, N.V. Anh, V.D. Tuan (2007). Keywords: Environmental sanitation, Material flow analysis, Phosphorus, Nutrient recovery, Hanoi, Developing countries

Assessing nutrient flows in septic tanks by eliciting expert judgement: A promising method in the context of developing countries. A. Montangero, H. Belevi (2007). Keywords: On-site sanitation systems, Nutrient, Material flow analysis, Developing countries, Data scarcity, Expert knowledge

Helminth eggs inactivation efficiency by faecal sludge dewatering and co-composting in tropical climates. D. Kone, O. Cofie, C. Zurbrügg, K. Gallizzi, D. Moser, S. Drescher, M. Strauss (2007). Keywords: Ascaris, Co-composting, Drying beds, Faecal sludge, Helminth eggs, Trichuris

Investigating helminth eggs and Salmonella sp. in stabilization ponds treating septage. G. Sanguinetti, C. Tortul, M.C. Garcìa, A. Montangero, M. Strauss (2004). Keywords: Ascaris, Biosolids, Helminth eggs inactivation, Primary ponds, Salmonella, Septage

The challenge of faecal sludge management in urban areas – strategies, regulations and treatment options. A.M. Ingallinella, G. Sanguinetti, T. Koottatep, A. Montagnero, M. Strauss (2001). Keywords: Faecal sludge, Hygienic quality, Septage, Sludge, Standards, Treatment

Cotreatment of sewage and septage in waste stabilization ponds. A.M. Ingallinella, G. Sanguinetti, R.G. Fernandez, M. Strauss, A. Montangero (2000). Keywords: Effluent quality, Septage, Sewage, Sludge, Waste stabilization ponds, Vacuum trucks

Solids separation and pond systems for the treatment of fecal sludges in the tropics - lessons learnt and recommendations for preliminary design. SANDEC Report No. 5/98. U. Heinss, S.A. Larmie, M. Strauss (1998).

Treatment of sludges from on-site sanitation - Low cost options. M. Strauss, S.A. Larmie, U. Heinss  (1997).

Project Reports, Guidelines, Manuals and Articles

EWM articles in the Sandec News

Urine Treatment